51 account. Account 51. Debit 51 accounts
Any economic activity of the organizationis impossible without the movement of financial flows. Cash is involved in all processes occurring at enterprises of any form of ownership. Purchase of working capital, investment in fixed assets, settlements with budgets of different levels, founders, employees of the enterprise - all production and administrative activities are carried out with the help of money and with a view to obtaining them.
Types of payment
In practice, there are two main typessettlements - cash and non-cash. Cash, as a rule, is applied at small volumes of movement of money resources are single payments which can be carried out through cash department of the company. For small businesses, with a small turnover and modest income, using cash is the best option. Large companies are more likely to adopt a non-cash system; as shown by the results of its use, it is much more efficient, faster and cheaper than working with large amounts of money. Therefore, to date, 98% of all settlements are carried out through the banking system, on a cashless basis.
Reflection of a non-cash system in accounting
For analysis, planning, accounting, movingthe venture has opened a synthetic, balance sheet account 51. It is active, which means reflecting the incoming funds on a debit, spending financial resources on a loan. 51 the account is created for the account of the most mobile from assets of the enterprise - non-cash means. In the balance sheet, it is reflected in a generalized form, the balance (balance) is determined daily for the operational management of finances. Analytical accounting is maintained for each item of receipt and expense separately. An organization can simultaneously open the required number of accounts in one or more credit institutions. Regardless of their number, all information on the movement has been accumulated and is conducted on 51 accounts. The balance (balance) is formed by the formula: balance at the beginning + turnover on the debit of the account - turnover on the loan. The result is the sum of available (at the moment) funds. It is credited to 51 accounts as the initial debit balance for the next period.
Types of non-cash payments
All settlement and payment transactions are carried outbank, with which the organization has concluded a contract for the maintenance of the account. The basis for the operations of withdrawal or transfer of funds is the written notification of the owner, which is checked by bank employees for compliance with legislation and unified forms. Form of non-cash payment organization-owner of funds chooses independently, based on contractual obligations of specific counterparties. More often, the payer company with the help of the relevant document gives the bank an order to withdraw (write-off, transfer) non-cash funds from the account in favor of the specified counterparty. Unconditional write-offs are used less often, the confirmation of which is not required from the owner of the assets. Cash withdrawal for own needs is made by the organization with the help of checks. The owners of the bank account receive the necessary check limit on the basis of the application. Completed and certified with the appropriate signatures and seals, the checkbook sheets can also serve to calculate the account holder enterprise with contractor organizations, suppliers, etc. At the same time, the check is issued to the organization or an individual (its representative) and is cashed when presented to the bank payer.
Document flow on the current account
51 the account is maintained on the basis of a bank statement. It is mandatory to attach documents that serve as an instruction for the movement of funds on a specific account of the enterprise. All write-offs, transfers, which the owner of assets made during the statement period, are confirmed by a copy of the outgoing payment order or demand. The check counterpoint serves as a justification for withdrawing cash. Crediting of the received sums from the enterprise-owner (delivery of a part of proceeds in cash) is fixed by the bank warrant. Funds received from buyers and other debtors, within the framework of contractual obligations, are confirmed by a copy of the incoming payment order of the payer organization. All documents on the transfer of non-cash money are processed in strict accordance with the unified forms and requirements of the bank, certified by signatures of authorized persons and the seal of the organization.
Debit 51 account is a reflection of the receipt of cash. Admission is from the following sources:
The debit turnover is summarized for the reportingtime interval and is a generalized indicator of the receipt of funds to the company's current account. For the analysis of receipts, a turnover-balance sheet or an account analysis is used.
Movement on the loan
Credit account 51 is formed from write-off operations(expense) of non-cash funds of the enterprise. Turnover on the loan shows the total amount of transfers, debits and withdrawals of cash placed on account 51. The postings for the loan are as follows:
- Cash withdrawal (D 50, K 51) - from the current accountCash withdrawn to the cash office of the enterprise is withdrawn (cashing occurs in a limited order, with an item of expenditure). Most often, organizations use part of the funds when paying wages or for economic needs.
- Movement of non-cash (D 51/55, K 51) - thiscorrespondence is spent at transfer of a part of means to other account or on opening of the special letters of credit intended for calculations with counterparts.
- Payment to suppliers, contractors and other creditors (D 60/62/76, K 51) - transfer of the amount of assets from the settlement account to the counterparties (for goods and services, product returns, etc.).
- Settlements for loans, loans and credits (D 66, K 51) - interest is listed for the use of borrowed funds or repayment of debts on loans.
- Fulfillment of obligations to budgets of various levels and extrabudgetary funds (D 68/69, K 51) - depending on the tax or fund, correspondent subaccounts are indicated in correspondence.
- Salary (D 70, K 51) - transferred to employees.
- Settlements with the founders (D 75, K 51) - based on the results of activity, payments were made to the founders.