Adenocarcinoma of the lung: causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis of all stages
Among other oncological processes in the respiratory system, adenocarcinoma accounts for almost a third of cases, and some scientists believe that at least 40%. Among non-smokers, cancer processes in the lungs most often take place precisely in this scenario. Histological examination of adenocarcinoma manifests itself nodes of brown, gray, yellowish tint with separate transparent elements. Often the peripheral form is accompanied by a scar.
Types and types
Adenocarcinoma of the lungs is a collective concept that combines several types of cancer processes. With a normal adenocarcinoma, papillae, tubules, solid, acinar structures are present in the tissues, including cells that generate mucous substances.Highly differentiated glandular are combined with low-differentiated ones.
The acinar form is often formed by glandular elements, differing from each other in size, shape. Papillary adenocarcinoma is a form of the disease in which the papillae and tubercles are formed inside the complexes of the glands and tubules. A solid option is similar to the large cell cancer process. With such adenocarcinoma of the lungs, glandular, papillary elements are not formed. This disease is poorly differentiated, while the acinar and papillary types belong to the high differentiation group.
Adenocarcinoma of the lungs is large, giant, clear cell, combined with glandular and flat cells. Possible carcinoid tumor.
How to notice?
When the disease is just beginning to develop, there are no characteristic manifestations. The tumor grows, gradually the patient begins to disturb the unexplained cough. At the same time, sputum is secreted in large quantities, often with an admixture of blood. Dyspnea worries, chest pain, voice disturbed. With adenocarcinoma of the lungs, the lymph nodes become larger.The incidence of pleurisy, pneumonia increases. Often the patient notes slightly elevated temperature. There is a sharp weight loss.
What to count on?
The prognosis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma in the case of late detection of the disease is unfavorable, especially if the appropriate treatment is not practiced. On average, it takes half a year to increase the size of the tumor. Since the neoplasm is growing rapidly, it is characteristic for it to actively spread metastases throughout the body.
When adenocarcinoma affects the bone tissue, liver, adrenal glands. Possible infection of the brain. Five-year survival is estimated at an average of 15%.
Help the patient
Treatment of pulmonary adenocarcinoma is selected based on the degree of progress of the disease. If it is possible to identify education in the primary stage, the patient is sent for surgery. The doctor determines the localization of the tumor process, the dimensions of the formation. Evaluating the information received, it is decided, more effectively in a particular case, to remove a segment, lung lobe or organ completely. To minimize the risk of recurrence, it is necessary to remove nearby lymphatic system nodes.
At stage 4, adenocarcinoma of the lungs cannot be cured by surgery.In earlier steps, such intervention may be contraindicated for various reasons. If it is impossible to operate a patient, chemotherapy and radiation are prescribed. The main objective of the event is to slow down the progress of the condition.
Features of the spread of the disease
As shown by statistical studies, more often by their own experience they learn what is adenocarcinoma of the lungs, men. It is known that there is a higher risk of developing the disease if a person at work is forced to come into contact with dangerous, harmful factors. The probability of developing cancer is greater if the person smokes. The number of women with adenocarcinoma is significantly less than that of the stronger sex.
As doctors have established, studying what lung adenocarcinoma is, the disease is provoked by an abundance of factors. These include smoking - this habit, as clearly shown by specific studies, increases the risk of cancer by several dozen times. The danger is higher if a person regularly drinks, eats products that contain carcinogens, is in a dusty space for a long time, or is forced to work with asbestos.
The probability of peripheral lung adenocarcinoma is higher if a person lives in an unfavorable environmental situation, near highways, industrial facilities, and also eats dirty food and water. The dangers are greater if the area is contaminated with radon, the lungs are exposed to ionizing radiation.
Studies have shown that oncology is more likely if a person suffers from chronic lung diseases or there is a genetic predisposition to oncology. More often adenocarcinoma is detected in people over sixty years of age. Among the secondary factors is the use of hormonal drugs.
Since there are no characteristic symptoms of oncology, adenocarcinoma is rarely detected at the initial stage. It is known that in some patients the appetite disappeared to such an extent that people refused to eat at all. Sometimes a very pronounced weakness worries, working capacity decreases, a person gets very tired. During the day, it often pulls into sleep, and the weight gradually decreases. In laboratory studies, you can notice a progressive decrease in the blood of red cells.All these manifestations are characteristic of various oncological diseases, they may indicate their approach or atypical processes that have already begun.
If you ignore the primary manifestations, other symptoms of oncology gradually join. Adenocarcinoma manifests itself as discomfort in the chest. Lymph nodes grow particularly strongly under the jaw and in the armpit. If adenocarcinoma is accompanied by respiratory diseases, their cure is more and more difficult once every time.
Over time, the cancer process leads to the formation of metastases. The features of appearance at this stage are determined by the localization of secondary foci. At this stage, lung adenocarcinoma is treatable with great difficulty.
Step by step
The primary stage of adenocarcinoma is a small tumor, localized strictly in the lungs. The second stage - a tumor of small size, lymph nodes nearby are affected by metastases. The third stage is infection of the lung completely, metastases are observed in the lymphatic system.
The most neglected variant is the fourth stage of the disease. Studies reveal lymph node metastases,various internal organs. The therapeutic course is extremely difficult, the probability of death is high. True, the most effective modern techniques give a certain chance for a successful cure.
Suspecting adenocarcinoma, the doctor prescribes an x-ray. This approach, the simplest one, is available in almost any clinic, and makes it possible to determine the presence in the lungs of a dubious area that may turn out to be a tumor. It is not uncommon for a patient to be referred to an X-ray image of a patient not because of suspicion of adenocarcinoma, but for other reasons, and it is only by chance that a malignant formation is detected.
To clarify the case using MRI, CT. Currently, such methods provide the most accurate and detailed information about the patient's condition. The doctor studies the lungs in different angles, projections. Based on the information received, it is possible to determine which treatment will give the best results. MRI, CT - the ways in which you can identify metastases, if they already exist.
Ultrasound diagnosis is another popular method to evaluate the patient's condition. Currently, ultrasound is done to all individuals who have adenocarcinoma.It is believed that the ultrasound itself to identify the exact diagnosis is not informative, but gives additional information regarding the above diagnostic methods.
Biopsy is an extremely important method of analysis. Without such a study, it is impossible to accurately diagnose a tumor disease of any type. From the patient's body take tissue samples for histological examination to determine the level of malignancy, the characteristics of atypical cells. During the biopsy, bronchoscopy is done, studying the condition of the bronchial tree from the inside. This allows you to get the most accurate information about the development process.
A high level of differentiation is possible. In this case, the atypical cells that make up the adenocarcinoma are in their structure as close to healthy as possible. At an early stage, such a disease does not manifest itself. Some common symptoms will be, but many do not pay attention to them, confusing cancer with the common cold, chronic fatigue. In general, a high level of differentiation of atypical cells indicates a good prognosis.
A moderate level of differentiation of tumor cells means significant deviations from the normal structure. Such adenocarcinoma is dangerous, it can provoke complications. High probability of metastatic infection of internal organs.
A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma is diagnosed if atypical cells are very different from healthy ones. It is extremely problematic for the doctor to evaluate the structure of education, the specifics of its development, and therefore it is difficult to find a successful therapeutic course. Low-grade adenocarcinoma is prone to explosive growth, increased aggressiveness. The prognosis is the most unfavorable.
The best predictions are for someone who turned to the doctor at an early stage. Probably the outcome will be positive. At an early stage, adenocarcinoma responds well to treatment if the patient follows a course developed by a specialist. The doctor thinks about the measures for the complete removal from the body of reborn cells. The task of the course is to provide the patient with a maximum life expectancy. When it is impossible to cure, the therapy is selected so that the symptoms of the disease are tolerated relatively easily and as painlessly as possible.
The operation is possible at the first, second stage of the tumor neoplasm.Effective measure will be if there are no metastases to distant organs. If the spread in the body has begun, the effectiveness of the operation is too low, so in most cases this approach to treatment is not appropriate.
Nuances of the case
Adenocarcinoma can be localized in a variety of organs and tissues of the human body. The exception is the vessels and connective tissue. Although in most cases cancer is found in people older than 60 years of age, there is a chance of getting sick in all age groups. Features of the manifestation of adenocarcinoma in children and adults, adults, the elderly are no different.
In some cases, it is possible to suspect adenocarcinoma by sputum, which is characterized by an unpleasant odor. In the secretions you can find traces of atypical cells. In practice, due to sputum, only a small percentage of patients come to doctors. Sometimes patients are worried about swelling of the neck, face. May hoarse voice. If adenocarcinoma develops very quickly, the likelihood of internal bleeding increases.
Treatment of adenocarcinoma is possible only in a specialized clinic with the use of products of the pharmaceutical industry and special devices.Self-treatment of such cancer at home can not be successful in principle, it will only be the loss of precious time, will accelerate the death.