Air temperature at the workplace: accounting, compliance. Optimum temperature
Optimal microclimate indicators in the workplace are the key to high productivity and staff health. Creating favorable conditions for the performance of duties by employees is undoubtedly beneficial to employers. However, not all managers seek to follow the requirements of sanitary and hygienic standards. There are various explanations for this. On the one hand, the temperature regime must be regulated by expensive equipment, on the other hand, the notion of a favorable microclimate is considered by many to be subjective. For example, there are situations when one part of a team experiences cold, and the other - on the contrary, complains of excessive heat. At the same time, the legislation provides for clear microclimate indicators in workplaces that are optimal for providing working conditions.These standards provide for different indicators depending on the category of the working room.
Requirements for rooms of the first category
For a start it is worth noting that the first two categories provide for the division into subgroups "a" and "b". The differences in them are due to the nature of the actions performed. For example, the group "a" is the objects on which the work is carried out in a sitting position and is associated with minor loads. In the subcategory "a" includes the premises in which the expected intensity of energy consumption is not more than 139 watts. In particular, it can be enterprises of instrument-making and automotive, sewing and watch manufacturing. In this case, the optimum temperature is 21–28 ° C. Slightly different indicators that should be followed in the regulation of the microclimate in the premises of the subcategory "b". The intensity of energy consumption in this case can reach 174 W, and the lower limit of the normal temperature is 20 ° C.
Requirements for rooms of the second category
This group is distinguished not only by a higher intensity of energy consumption (232 W), but also by the very nature of the performance of working actions.Already the subgroup "a" assumes that employees move or move small loads (up to 1 kg) in a sitting or standing position. The range of permissible temperature index in relation to this category is 18–27 ° C. If the work of an employee is connected with the movement of weights (up to 10 kg), and the intensity of energy consumption reaches 290 W, then we are talking about the group “b” and the lower limit will be lowered to 16 ° C. As a rule, the temperature regime of air in such ranges is established at forging, mechanized, thermal and rolling mills. Work may include maintenance of assembly plants, conveyors and production lines.
Requirements for rooms of the third category
If the intensity of energy consumption exceeds 290 W, then the third category should be considered. This is the most demanding in terms of setting the parameters of the microclimate of the room. Employees in such enterprises make great physical efforts, walking and moving loads more than 10 kg. Favorable temperature conditions in relation to the premises of this group vary from 15 to 26 ° C. These are usually workshops and production workshops in which workers perform manual operations.This may be metal processing, preparation of building structures, installation operations, etc.
General indicators of the optimum temperature for different categories of production premises can be adjusted for the season. Typically, the deviation is 3-4 ° C. When calculating this difference, the average daily temperature indicator is taken into account. For example, in summer it is 10 ° C and higher, and in winter, on the contrary, 10 ° C and lower. Of course, in matters of which temperature will be optimal for a particular workplace, is determined by many factors, and adherence to standards does not always contribute to comfort. Therefore, it is worthwhile to be guided by the individual characteristics of the employee’s body, taking into account its functionality.
Meeting the requirements for establishing the optimal microclimate at workplaces is impossible without measuring devices. Moreover, traditional thermometers are not suitable for this. At a minimum, we need similar devices designed for use in offices and in factories. In addition, you must be guided by special approaches to the definition of values.For example, in the warm season, taking into account the temperature regime implies measurement on days when there is a deviation from the thermometer reading from similar data of the hottest month by less than 5 ° C.
The frequency of such measurements depends on several factors, including the stability of work processes and the characteristics of sanitary facilities. Choosing time and areas for measurements, you should also focus on the stages of technological processes, the work of ventilation and heating systems, etc. Usually such activities are carried out at least three times per shift.
How is temperature regulated?
First of all, at the enterprises the necessary measures for heat insulation, heating and ventilation should be carried out. Control and compliance with the temperature regime also provide for means of cooling the air. To do this, air conditioners and systems for air showering are installed. The presence of such equipment allows you to adjust the volume of air injection, its speed and the overall format of work.
If the installation of such systems is impossible for technical reasons, the manager should arrange comfortable conditions for rest in a separate room.In some industries it is mandatory to provide drinking water. Especially in hot weather, employees must consume at least 3 liters of fluid per day.
Alternative Compliance Methods
The inability to fulfill the conditions to ensure a comfortable microclimate occurs quite often. One of the ways out of this situation may be the already mentioned rest room, but such facilities may not be organized at all enterprises. To bring the temperature at the workplace to optimum performance by reducing the duration of work shifts. The more hours a person works, the stricter the requirements for the microclimate.
Thus, it is possible to vary the time intervals for shifts, thereby satisfying regulatory requirements. In addition, it is practiced to introduce regulated breaks that allow employees to leave their workplaces for a certain time. If possible, it is worthwhile to organize a differentiated scheme of organization of work processes, in which workers can change places.
What threatens non-compliance with the temperature?
Complaints received from employees of enterprises on this issue are no longer a rarity. But before that, it is necessary to notify the authorities in writing that the requirements of sanitary standards are not complied with and that appropriate measures should be taken. If, in response to this request, no reaction follows and the temperature regime remains the same, the employee has the right to demand compensation for the harm. In addition, administrative punishment may follow for a manager. To date, the fines for non-compliance with the rules of microclimate regulation are quite high and reach tens of thousands of rubles. Also, as a punishment, a ban on the operation of an enterprise for up to three months may be imposed.
Ensuring comfortable working conditions is especially important, since the activities of employees of various enterprises themselves are associated with certain loads. It should not be thought that the situation is easier if we are talking about office workers. Physical activity gives some tone to the body, so the temperature regime is not so noticeable. However, sedentary and monotonous work associated with high responsibility implies serious psychological stress.In conditions of heat on this background, cardiovascular diseases often develop. Therefore, the issue of ensuring an optimal microclimate involves not only creating comfort, but also directly aims to eliminate the harmful effects on the health of working personnel. Also, do not forget about the benefits for the companies and organizations whose effectiveness is directly related to the functionality of their employees.