Edema- excessive accumulation of fluid in body tissues and serous cavities. Accompanied by an increase in the volume of tissues and body weight, a decrease in the capacity of serous cavities, a disorder of the function of edematous tissues and organs.
There are common, or common, edema, indicating a violation of water-salt metabolism in the body as a whole, and local, or localized, edema resulting from fluid retention in a limited area of the body. Total edema, as well as the accumulation of fluid in separate closed cavities, is called dropsy. The pathogenesis of general edema involves the complex mechanisms of excessive sodium and water retention by the kidneys. Particular importance is attached to the violation of the regulation of the metabolism of salts and water by hormones, in particular when there is an excess production of vasopressin, aldosterone. Increased hydrostatic pressure in capillaries (for example, heart failure), increased permeability (for example, allergies), reduced oncotic pressure of blood plasma (for example, cachexia, some kidney diseases), and impaired factors lymphatic drainage.By origin, edema is divided into cardiac, renal, cachectic, allergic, hypothyroid, lymphatic, angioneurotic, etc. The clinical manifestations of edema have features used for the diagnosis of the underlying disease.
The treatment carried out by the doctor is aimed at the underlying disease, and for general edema it also includes a set of special measures to eliminate the edema. Patients are prescribed bed rest, they significantly limit the ingestion of salt (up to 1-1.5 grams per day) and fluids for several days (longer use of a salt-free diet can cause salt depletion). In case of cachectic edema, a diet rich in protein and vitamins is prescribed. Apply diuretics and potassium-sparing drugs (veroshpiron, triamteren, amiloride). The treatment is carried out under strict control of changes in the body weight of patients, the daily amount of urine, and with long-term use of diuretics also the dynamics of electrolytes in the blood. With a decrease in the concentration of potassium, use preparations containing its salts, and prescribe a diet rich in potassium (potatoes, dried apricots, prunes, etc.).When abdominal swelling, which are not amenable to drug exposure, the cavity is punctured to evacuate the fluid. In case of allergic edema of the larynx, glucocorticoid hormones and antihistamines are used.