Federal state, its difference from the unitary
A federal state is a complex entity, which includes several state entities of a smaller scale and international legal significance. These constituent entities may be called differently: lands, states, cantons, provinces, emirates, and so on. Having united in a single federative state, they transfer part of their authority to the newly created central government bodies. Subjects voluntarily limit their sovereignty to this.
Unitary and federal state
In countries with such an administrative-territorial structure, there are actually two state apparatus: the federal, whose power extends over the whole country, and the apparatus of the subjects of this federation, which have quite wide powers within their own lands. Similarly, laws can be divided into federal and those that are obligatory for implementation only in limited territories of subjects.A unitary state, on the contrary, is characterized by the unity of all the authorities, the constitution and the legal system for the whole country. Such states are, for example, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Italy in Europe, many countries in Africa and Asia. A federal structure prevails in ethnically heterogeneous countries (Belgium), in countries that emerged through the merger of independent entities (Germany, Switzerland, USA), in countries with a large population or a large territory (Russia is a federal state too). This type of device is a historical result of the difficulties that have arisen in the country between individual groups, or as a result of its large size. Such a device is widely represented on the planet.
The main features possessed by the federal state
- It consists of individual entities with their own authorities. Sometimes these entities have the authority to adopt their own constitution, as well as their own legislative and judicial bodies.
- A federal state has specificity in the system of the central legislative body.Parliaments in such countries are necessarily bicameral. One of the chambers is a body of federal representation - it is formed through elections throughout the country. The second chamber is assembled from representatives of the regions and reflects their interests. Although it should be noted that a bicameral parliament is not necessarily a sign of a federal state, it can also be a unitary system.
- For many federations, the concept of dual citizenship is relevant. It is about the local citizenship of the subject of the federation and the national.