Female infertility or sterility
Female infertility or sterility(from the Latin word sterilis - infertile) - is a pathological condition of the body with the inability to fertilization.
Female infertility is one of the most common and sad gynecological problems.
A fruitless is considered to be a marriage in which, with regular sex life and the absence of contraception for 2 years, pregnancy does not begin.
Infertility or, as they say in recent years, a decrease in fertility (fertility) is not an independent disease, but a symptom of a number of common diseases and diseases of the genital organs. Not often causes of female infertility are several.
There are primary infertility, when there has never been a pregnancy since the very beginning of sexual activity, and secondary, when after one or several pregnancies preceding one or several pregnancies (childbirth, abortion, ectopic pregnancy) in subsequent years of pregnancy does not begin.It is also customary to single out absolute female infertility associated with irreversible pathological changes in the genital organs, eliminating any chance of conception, and relative — the cause that caused it can be eliminated.
Female infertility is observed, according to different authors, in 40-60% of cases of infertile marriage.
Causes of primary infertility:
- the underdevelopment of the female genital organs (infantilism), all sorts of anomalies of their development and all kinds of hormonal disorders accompanying them;
- an abnormal position of the uterus, creating mechanical impediments that are unfavorable for conception;
- functional insufficiency of the gonads, manifested by various disorders of the menstrual cycle.
Causes of secondary infertility:
- inflammatory diseases of the female reproductive system: inflammatory diseases of the fallopian tubes and ovaries (salpingoophoritis), cervix (erosion, endocervicitis), vagina (vaginitis, vaginosis);
- genital infections: gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, chlamydia, mycoplasmosis, herpes virus and cytomegalovirus infections and others;
- complications after abortion;
- genital tumors, endometriosis;
- traumatic injuries of the perineum, followed by surgical complications;
- diseases of the endocrine glands (endocrine diseases);
- general debilitating diseases and chronic intoxications (alcohol, drugs, nicotine, production hazards, etc.);
- ionizing radiation;
- biological incompatibility (immunological infertility).
Identifying the causes of infertility in women is a very difficult problem, since it is often caused by several factors. Examination volume should be determined only by a doctor. It can include examination, examination with the help of mirrors, scrapings for sexual infections, oncocytology, the degree of purity of the vagina. In most cases, it is necessary to measure rectal temperature during the menstrual cycle, ultrasound-monitoring of follicle maturation in the ovary, changes in sex and other hormones.
In a number of cases, there is a need to conduct a study on the patency of the fallopian tubes and the Shuvarskii-Juner sample (to penetrate the spermatozoa through the cervical mucus).
Eliminates the probability of improbability to fertilization in men.When establishing infertility in women, treatment is focused on eliminating the causal moments of its occurrence.
Due to the variety of causes of impaired reproductive function of women, the treatment of infertility is very difficult and always long. After establishing the diagnosis, first of all, the doctor draws up a treatment plan, which is determined by the general condition of the patient and the nature of the disease that caused the infertility. Depending on this treatment - anti-inflammatory, surgical, hormone therapy.