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G. occurs on the basis of a congenital malformation of the blood vessels and is usually found from the moment of the birth of the child. Often G. appear in the children. age There are G. superficial (skin and mucous membranes), deep (subcutaneous and submucosal), the musculoskeletal system, as well as parenchymal organs (liver, brain, kidneys, etc.). Localized mainly on the face, neck and near nature. holes. Possible hereditary transmission (often in women).
Almost all elements of the vessel's wall take part in the formation of a blood vessel, but they are atypically arranged with a predominance of certain constituent parts of the walls. Depending on the morphologist, the structures distinguish several varieties of G. Capillary (hypertrophic), or simple G., consists of a large number of intertwining capillaries. Cavernous (cavernous) G. is represented by large cavities of various shapes, filled with blood, lined with endothelium and demarcated by thin septa of connective tissue.
Practical the skin integument is important, most often the face.Often they penetrate into the thickness of underlying tissues, as a rule, have the appearance of vascular spots of various sizes from pinkish-red to purple-blue or appear blue from thinned skin and disfigure eyelids, lips, nose, ear.
A characteristic feature of G. is their ability to refill with blood after compression and collapse. Disease painless, sometimes ulcerate, inflamed, bleed, some with a tendency to grow from small bluish spots on the skin of the face to large tumors, can destroy the surrounding tissues, causing serious violations of the functions of the eye, nose, tongue, etc. G mucous membranes are more often localized in the oral cavity, in the tongue and sometimes reach large sizes.
TREATMENT: removal of the tumor with a cryosurgical knife or cauterization (seeLaser therapy). Sometimes - radiation therapy in the form of applications of radioactive cobalt or the introduction of cobalt radioactive and l in the tissue hemangiomas. Rarely - radiotherapy.
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