Hypopituitarism

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Hypopituitarism- A disease that occurs as a result of a decrease or complete deactivation of the function of the anterior pituitary gland. Causes: brain tumor; vascular disorders (after natal and other bleeding, aneurysm, arteritis, hemorrhage in the pituitary gland); specific diseases (tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, syphilis, encephalitis, meningitis); cranial injuries; congenital absence of the pituitary gland.

Symptoms and course of hypopituitarism- the earliest symptom - a decrease in sexual desire and potency, menstrual disorders, until the complete cessation of menstruation. Hair loss in the armpits and pubic hair. The skin is pale, waxy, body temperature is reduced. Characterized by drowsiness, fatigue, loss of interest in the environment and to yourself. Tendency to hypoglycemic conditions - intolerance of hunger with poor appetite, the patient is exhausted, anemia often develops. In children, the disease is manifested by dwarfism, delayed physical and sexual development.

Treatment of hypopituitarism. For tumors - surgical, X-ray, gamma-therapy with subsequent replacement therapy, which is carried out for life in order to restore the normal level of hormones in the body. The affected pituitary gland does not ensure their production in other endocrine glands (genital, thyroid, adrenal glands). Apply - cortisol (adrenal hormone), thyroidin (thyroid hormone), in men - male sex hormones, in women - female sex hormones, in babies growth hormone treatment (somatotropic hormone) and anabolic drugs are used to ensure the growth and development of skeletal bones and muscle

Forecast. Favorable with proper replacement therapy.

Hypopituitarism- lack of function of the pituitary or hypothalamus with a decrease or cessation of production of one or more tropic hormones of the anterior lobe or ADH.

Etiology

  • Pituitary tumors, traditionally adenomas (p. 13) and cranio-pharyngiomas (p. 409), can lead to the destruction of components of the pituitary-hypothalamic system with corresponding hormonal loss
  • Sheena syndrome
  • Rapid removal of pituitary tumors or other brain tumors can cause damage to the hypothalamus and / or pituitary
  • Rare causes: sarcoidosis, hemochromatosis, Hand-Sümer-Krishche-sh disease, tuberculosis, syphilis, fungal infections. Genetic aspects
  • Syndrome 18p- (147250, divisions in chromosome 18, R), and also (146390, R): fusion of the upper jaw incisors, hypoplasia of the hypothalamus and pituitary, characteristic GH
  • Deficiency of the pituitary transcription factor (241540, 3q); the absence of the stem of the pituitary and posterior lobe, hypoplasia of the anterior lobe, congenital hypopituitarism in combination with diabetes insipidus, hypoglycemia, hypoplasia of the genitals. Risk factors
  • Head injuries
  • Pregnancy and childbirth.

Pathomorphology

  • Destruction of the anterior pituitary gland
  • Atrophy of the adrenal cortex, thyroid, gonads.

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