Normal blood sugar levels and reasons for its rejection
More than 100 million patients with a diagnosis of diabetes are registered in the world and the number of such patients is increasing daily. This diagnosis may be latent for many years, however, its numerous complications, both chronic and acute, are dangerous. All people over 45 are at risk. In this regard, a person throughout his life should monitor the normal level of sugar in the blood in order to avoid falling into the number of patients. Blood glucose is usually measured in hospitals or outpatient clinics when referring to a blood test, but this can also be done at home with a glucometer, which is especially necessary for people suffering from diabetes. The physiological increase of this parameter occurs immediately after the ingestion of food, but this figure should not exceed 8 millimoles / liter and fall below 3.5.Normal fasting blood sugar levels are 3.9 / 4.0–5.5 / 5.9 millimoles / liter in capillary and venous blood, respectively.
Glucose is an indispensable substrate for the synthesis of high-energy compounds, due to which all the cells of the body function. With its insufficient external intake, internal carbohydrate depots in the liver and muscles are mobilized, and other mechanisms of energy production from lipids and amino acids are triggered. However, these methods of compensation are not characteristic of nervous tissue, and therefore a normal level of sugar in the blood is necessary, first of all, to provide nutrients to the brain. Excessive intake of glucose is also not beneficial for the organism, since it is an osmotically active monosaccharide and, at elevated concentrations in the blood (hyperglycemic state), takes water to itself, which increases blood pressure and adversely affects the walls of blood vessels.
Of course, there are mechanisms for regulating this process: the rate of sugar in a person’s blood is maintained by the action of the pancreatic hormone insulin, which is released immediately after glucose enters the bloodstream.It stimulates its capture by cells (except cells of the nervous tissue and the liver) and the synthesis of energy compounds from it (during glycolysis) and polymer osmotically inactive glycogen (stored in hepatocytes and muscle tissue). Another hormone of pancreatic cells - glucagon - on the contrary, increases blood sugar. The norm in adults of such hormonal antagonism is approximately equal, and the deficiency of one of them disrupts the regulation of glycemia. Thus, when the beta cells of the islets of this gland of a toxic or autoimmune nature die off, relative or absolute insulin deficiency develops. As a result, the normal level of sugar in the blood ceases to be maintained and a hyperglycemic state occurs, which, without treatment, can develop into a coma. The concentration of glucose in the bloodstream and during stress increases due to the action of adrenaline, which, like glucagon, promotes its release from the depot and synthesis in the liver from pyruvate.
When elevated blood glucose levels exceed the physiological threshold, glucose has a pathological effect on the vascular wall and general metabolic processes.Its excess amount is stored in the form of adipose tissue, but with a constant hyperglycemic state of this process is not enough, and it continues to circulate in the blood. Its filtration threshold in the kidneys is compensatory reduced, and glucose begins to be strongly excreted in the urine, which is manifested in increased urination. The loss of water causes, in turn, constant thirst and dry mouth. This is accompanied by a dystrophic syndrome in the form of poor wound healing and frequent itching. However, the complications of diabetes are extremely dangerous: hyper / hypoglycemic coma, renal failure, microangiopathy, leading to the breakdown of blood microcirculation. Therefore, this disease requires lifelong treatment and control of blood glucose levels.