Occupational Hygiene: Rules and Requirements
A person in a work environment is often exposed to adverse factors. This sooner or later leads to a deterioration of health and reduced efficiency. The study of the adverse effects of production factors is engaged in such an industry as occupational health. Within this discipline, the development and implementation of effective measures to prevent occupational diseases is also carried out. Next, we will take a closer look at what occupational safety and health is.
Sphere of study
Occupational hygiene examines the impact on humans of directly production processes and the environment in an enterprise. On the basis of the obtained data, the development of standards is being carried out, in accordance with which a favorable atmosphere at workplaces is created. Scientific research is carried out in such areas as:
- Physiology of the working process, its impact on the body.Within this framework, effective measures are being developed to prevent fatigue and increase productivity.
- Industrial toxicology. This direction involves the development of permissible concentrations of harmful compounds in the conditions of production and measures to prevent occupational poisoning.
- The study of different types of dust and the determination of its maximum possible content in the air of industrial premises. Within this framework, ways to prevent occupational dust pathologies are also being developed.
- The study of the influence on the body of production factors of a physical nature These include, in particular, vibrations and noise, ionizing radiation, electromagnetic radio-frequency waves, and so on.
- Development of preventive measures to prevent occupational morbidity.
Objectives of the discipline
In a production environment, people are exposed to the negative effects of temperature, thermal radiation, harmful chemicals, noise and vibration, electromagnetic waves, and various combinations of these factors. To prevent their adverse effects,and also to eliminate the consequences, research is carried out on the characteristics of the production process at all its stages. At the same time, equipment and materials used for industrial purposes are being studied. Production wastes, raw materials, side, intermediate and auxiliary products are examined for their effect on the workers' bodies. At the same time, sanitary conditions, the nature and organization of processes, as well as physiological changes are studied. A detailed study of the state of health of employees allows timely identification of violations arising from the negative impact of production factors. Timely identification of the causes of physiological changes contributes to the rapid elimination of the harmful effects, the prevention of mass morbidity, and the avoidance of a decrease in the production rate. Occupational health hygiene also examines the state and efficiency of sanitary installations and devices (lighting, ventilation), equipment, and personal protective equipment. Such checks contribute to ensuring the health of these objects and objects.
Basics of occupational health
In Russia, there are certain standards. Due to their observance, the preservation of the health of the personnel of enterprises is guaranteed. Occupational health regulations are enshrined at the legislative level and are binding on any production. As standards acts the system of standards of a nationwide nature. It establishes occupational health requirements, as well as control methods aimed at creating a safe and safe working environment in the workplace. Within the framework of this direction, harmful and dangerous factors are systematized, the procedure for placing equipment, designing structures, structures and buildings is established. The standards, which include occupational health, also apply to the organization of workplaces, professional selection, as well as employee training.
Standards for industrial premises
Standards, which provides for occupational health, are used in the placement, construction, design, reconstruction of industrial buildings. In industries that use chemicals, maximum contact between the employee and the toxic compounds should be ensured.Carcinogenic enterprises must undergo sanitary and hygienic certification. The volume of production facilities per employee by standards is at least 15 m3. The free area must be at least 4.5 m2at the same time, the ceiling height is from 3.2 m. If several sections with different factors are located in one production building, it is necessary to take measures to prevent their impact on personnel.
Standards for production machines
During the operation of equipment, whose work is accompanied by the formation of dust, it must be sealed, compacted, equipped with aspiration devices (ventilation system) and shelters. This will eliminate air pollution in the production area. It is allowed to remove (collect) dust with a wet method or with a vacuum cleaner. It is prohibited to blow technological equipment, machines, ventilation systems, as well as products not equipped with dust collecting devices.
Work with harmful compounds and heat sources
Places of probable release of chemical gases, vapors, aerosols should be equipped with suction and shelters.In industries where there is a risk of toxic substances on the mucous membranes and skin, it is necessary to install hydrants and fountains for washing. The heat sources used (drying chambers, annealing, heating, smelting and other furnaces, piping and steam pipelines of hot gas subjected to heating, and other installations) should be equipped with devices and devices that limit or prevent the release of radiant and convection heat to the production room.
Unloading and unloading of dusty raw materials and capable of gassing must be equipped with ventilation exhaust systems. On the conveyors, through which the movement of materials, must be present shelters. They are also equipped with ventilation systems. These designs prevent air pollution.
The site on which the production plant is located must be fenced and kept clean. It is necessary to provide freedom for movement along the aisles and passages. They must have solid solid coating.These sites need to be repaired in a timely manner, and in winter, they should be cleared of ice and snow. Grass should be mowed in the adjacent and inland area.
Storage of solid waste should be carried out on specially enclosed areas, with a waterproof hard surface. These sites are equipped with waste bins. They must be marked. Waste collectors are equipped with lockable tight lids. Containers are cleaned as they are filled.
Recently, intellectual activity has become very important. The hygiene of mental labor in the first place provides a special routine. In the absence of a clear mode of operation, the likelihood of rapid fatigue of the nervous system is high. The result of intellectual activity depends on the psychological climate and mood. Favorable conditions should be created in accordance with the standards of occupational health. The room should be installed ventilation system, no smoking. It should be remembered that a long period of inactivity adversely affects the state of the musculoskeletal system.In this regard, mental work must be periodically replaced by physical exertion. It is advisable to perform simple exercises that help improve the blood supply in the body. Do not drink coffee often and strong tea. Excessive consumption can lead to irritability, insomnia, attention instability. Keeping to a good state is facilitated by walks in the fresh air.