Petilia aquarium fish: maintenance and care
Petilles are viviparous warm-water fish, of which there are more than thirty thousand species.They are the most famous and loved by both novice aquarists and professionals. Central and North America is considered their homeland. In the wild, they prefer the following habitats:
- small reservoirs, including lakes;
- marshy lower reaches of rivers.
A bit of history
Aquarists call pecilli belonging to the carpsong family mollies. Initially, only the melanistic forms of fish were styled this way, and later they began to call all petilium.
Breeders withdrawn catilia with different body shapes and fins. In total there are more than 130 different species of these aquarium fish. Due to the large variety of bred fish of similar color and shape, it is difficult to determine their species. There are about ten basic color solutions for the color of placium.
Kinship with guppies in the whole family of these fish. True (true) platillas should be distinguished from the spotted platium, which is divided into several races differing in color. Yellow color at the main form. The color range of the abdomen is from white to yellow, the sides are greenish-blue. A characteristic feature is the dark specks on the caudal fin, hence the name. Breeders deduced seven types of fish, differing in the location of the spots. When mating the spotted spotted with other small fish without spots, the first generation of offspring appears specks, which indicates their dominant character.
For fry of a strictly defined color, individuals are kept in a special aquarium or reservoir. Each fertilized female is placed in the spawning compartment, where the babies are carefully watched, sorted by color.
Under natural conditions, the color of the creece is yellowish brown. Some fish have dark specks near the tail fin and in general they are not particularly attractive. Thanks to the efforts of breeders obtained a variety of colors of these wonderful inhabitants of aquariums.
In the description of the platies (the maintenance and care of which are discussed below), a dense, strong body and a wide tail fin should be noted. They are very hardy and unpretentious. Males are almost two times smaller and lighter than females; they have gonopodia - the organ of copulation. Females reach a length of six centimeters and are large fish. The abdomen is full, rounded, with faded scales. Anal fin wide, rounded.
The morphology of the diskius or the cortical balloon is unusual, it got its name due to the curved spine and the rounded body. This species is very capricious in maintenance and care.
Despite the diversity of species, the maintenance and care of them is almost the same.
- Yellow Redfin. The color of the body and the dorsal fin is yellow, at the bottom of which there is a fringe of white or black color. Anal and dorsal fin painted red.
- Mottled - has a yellow or red main body color with black specks, which merge on the sides and form a wide so-called belt.
- Berlin is similar to the previous one and differs only in the red shade of the body.
- Blue is a very beautiful fish with a sky-blue body, white belly and two stripes on the tail section. The head is colored yellow or grayish green.
- Bleeding heart - this species of owners has a yellow-golden body, a white-pink base of the fins, and a bright red abdomen in the front. Black specks, more like points, cover the back and dorsal fin.
- Amber or yellow-amber are the owners of gray-black fins.
- Yellow. The fins are bright lemon-colored, the whole body is yellow, without dark patches.
- Blackfly with a red or yellow body color and scales framed with black canvas.
- Pearl albino with pink breast, head and anterior part of the back and with a brilliant golden-yellow torso. This species has a silvery cornea.
- Ruby (red) was used to remove the Sword. These fish are often used to breed new species. With the exception of the white abdomen, anal and ventral fin, all other parts of a bright red saturated color.
There are also gold, red, pale red luminous and other fish with various combinations of spots of different shapes and sizes.
Choosing an aquarium
When choosing a home habitat, we proceed from the following:
- For a comfortable existence of one adult, a water volume of about two liters is necessary. The fish are very active, swim quickly, preferring the upper and middle layers of water, therefore, for maintenance and care, aquarium petsiliyam require a deep, wide reservoir, ranging from 70 to 100 liters.
- A lid or glass with small holes is a must-have element in the arrangement of the aquarium so that the fish that have played out cannot jump out.
- There must be a sufficient number of plants so that the young can hide from hungry adults. In order to form overgrowths they use a rodent leaf, an echinodorus, an elodea.
- Soil is undesirable, as the fish emit a significant amount of excrement. However, some aquarists recommend dark ground.
Petsyli has a friendly and peaceful nature. It is advisable to populate the aquarium inhabitants, similar to them in temperament, content and care. The compatibility of the pets with the following aquarium fish is considered ideal:
Undesirable cohabitation with goldfish, cichlids, koi carps.
Basically, care and maintenance of placiums do not cause any trouble. This is a very bright unpretentious fish.If the rules are followed (they are described in more detail above), namely, the cleanliness of the aquarium, a certain water temperature, the feeding rate, the fish will perfectly exist and reproduce in artificial conditions. However, in the case of acquiring a sick fish during the week, it usually dies.
All the details of the care and maintenance of the cases, the photos of which are presented in the article, are as follows:
- An aquarium with a water volume of about 20 liters is sufficient to illuminate for twelve hours a 15-watt lamp. Small fishes like twilight and hide in seaweed from bright light.
- The temperature of the water should be maintained from 20 to 26 degrees. At lower temperatures, they easily catch cold; at high temperatures, they become incapable of reproduction.
- The hardness of the water should be in the range of 8-25 °, the acidity of not more than 7.5.
- Once every 14 days, it is necessary to replace one third of the volume of water in the aquarium and add 5 g of table salt to 10 liters of water.
- To saturate the aquarium with oxygen and water purification from pollution, any compressor and internal filter will be suitable.
If you follow all the above recommendations for the care and maintenance of them, they will delight you for three years or more.
Percylia are omnivores, they eat well both dry and live food. The only condition is a varied and balanced diet. They like to eat:
- dandelion and lettuce leaves that are pre-scalded with boiling water;
- food containing spirulina;
- millet and oatmeal, cooked without added salt;
- fresh cucumbers and zucchini, finely chopped.
Vegetable food is necessary for small fish for good digestion.
From live food, they prefer moth, pipe maker, daphnia, koretra, artemia. Fish feed is captured from the surface of the water by the upper mouth. Care and maintenance of small fish of the partilias also consists in proper nutrition. They are fed no more than two times a day in small portions, which they should have time to eat in five minutes. When buying dry food in specialized stores, you need to carefully look at the shelf life and date of production. It is best to purchase packaged, rather than weighing feed. Store boxes closed to prevent the development of pathogenic flora.
At the age of five months, the fish are ready for procreation. Up to two females are placed on one male. The duration of the period of carrying caviar and fry is influenced by the conditions of their detention, and it can be from 10 to 60 days, on average, about 30 days. In pregnant females increases in size and becomes darker back of the abdomen.Young mum with pleasure eats the fry. To save offspring before birth, it is deposited in another aquarium, creating the conditions that were described above with the only difference - the vegetation must be thicker. Up to 50 fish are born at a time. After breeding, the content and care for babies is the same as for adults. Fry are born into already formed fish that can live independently. They feed on the same food as adults, as well as on sale there is a special food for fry.
Pecilia, like other aquarium fish, is ill:
- non-communicable diseases that are spread due to animal parasites;
- contagious (infectious) diseases caused by viruses, fungi and bacteria.
The causes of the disease are:
- Cold water for a day or more.
- Failure to comply with the basic rules of care and maintenance.
- Poor quality food, which can cause infection of fish living in the aquarium. If they do not take timely rescue measures, they will die due to the rapid spread of the infection.
Diseases to which aquarium petsilia are exposed:
- Melanosis - this disease develops due to the active production of fish melanin, a special coloring pigment. The disease is not infectious in nature and manifests itself in the form of small black specks on the fins and body, which subsequently increase in size and are transformed into tumor formations. Prevention is the observance of conditions for the care and maintenance of the patients, namely the temperature regime and the selection of healthy and strong individuals. Patients should be transplanted into the quarantine zone and kept at the minimum allowable temperature, observing the feeding regime.
- Microorganisms can settle on the body of the fish, and from the outside it will look like downy formations. Treatment: prepare a salty solution (dissolve about 20 g of salt in one liter of water) and put the sick fish in it for 10 minutes. Parasites will immediately die in such an environment.In the quarantine zone, the fish should be at least five days, that is, until the signs of the disease have completely disappeared.
- The appearance on the body of the fish dark bubbles and dots also signals the disease. Petsiliyu should be treated with means "Tripaplavin".
As a disease prevention, fish are placed in a solution of chlortetracycline for 12 hours.
Aquarium fish, pesilia, which are easy to maintain and care for, are available for breeding to any novice aquarist.