"Sea Lion" - an operation to seize England by fascist Germany
“Sea lion” - the operation of Hitler’s troops to capture the Foggy Albion in the period Many consider the reason for the defeat of the German troops in the war that Adolf Hitler did not end the war with England before attacking our country.
The merit of the Soviet Union is huge in the victory over Germany. However, do not forget about our allies. England is a country in the immediate vicinity of Berlin. The war between Churchill and Hitler was before the invasion of the Nazi hordes on the territory of the USSR.
What is the true purpose of Operation Sea Lion? We will try to understand this in this article.
England is the last outpost of free Europe.
After France capitulated without resistance, Hitler believed that England would follow her example. After the war, many German generals declared that “Sea Lion” was an “on paper” operation, that is, no one thought to put it into practice.After France surrendered to the Führer, Hitler considered himself the sole owner of Europe. The reason for this misconception is that it was the French who offered the most fierce resistance to the Kaiser divisions during the First World War. The Bavarian corporal saw with his own eyes Paris from the trenches, but it was not possible to reach him. Then, at all, Germany declared defeat. Fear of the French sat with Hitler in the subconscious. He even issued a special directive that protected Paris and other cities from destruction and looting. The Germans entered the French capital with a parade march, the fashionable French women met the Germans with flowers. This is not a bloody slaughter in the frosty winter for every village, for every house, for every meter of Soviet territory.
After the victory over France on June 22, 1940, the German generals and the Führer himself were in a state of euphoria. Hitler even announced partial demobilization: out of 160 divisions, 120 would remain. Of course, such announcements were designed to put down the vigilance of another leader, Stalin. It should be noted: the USSR also put Hitler to watchfulness. Any officer who openly declared a future war with the Germans became a “traitor” and “alarmist”; declared the demobilization of the western parts and others.Military historians have already recognized: all this is a play that was played by both sides.
However, in June 1940, all the thoughts of the Germans were only about Albion. Churchill made no secret that his main goal was to force Hitler to attack Stalin. However, the famous Prime Minister himself was not going to surrender to the Führer.
Attack on allies
"Sea Lion" - an operation whose planning is associated with the decisive actions of the British themselves. They carried out Operation Catapult: on July 3, 1940, the British attacked the allied French fleet stationed in the English ports of Portsmouth, Plymouth and Devonpotra. As a result, 2 battleships, 4 cruisers, 8 destroyers, and 12 submarines were captured. The crew forced off. There were no victims. Military resistance was able to provide only the crew of the submarine "Surcouf". The British remembered their pirate roots and took all the ships of the former allies. Hitler found himself without the French fleet, and the Germans themselves had few ships for the safe landing of the landing force.
Simultaneously with the pirate seizure of ships in English ports, the British flotilla approached the French fleet in Oran suddenly and offered an ultimatum: either the French continue the war with the Germans or must surrender.
Without waiting for a final decision, Admiral Sommerwell opened fire on the allies. It was not a naval battle, but the shooting of the French fleet anchored. All the newest battleships were put out of action: the “Brittany” flew into the air, the “Provence” washed ashore, the “Dunkirk” ran aground, receiving serious damage.
After such an act of aggression, the French broke off all relations with England, and Hitler himself could not understand what the British hoped for. But Churchill correctly calculated everything: he deprived the Germans of the powerful French fleet, reliably protecting their shores. In such conditions, “Sea Lion” is an operation that has remained just an idea without the possibility of practical implementation. Let us proceed directly to the plans of Hitler.
Military operation "Sea Lion": the beginning
Hitler, despite the defeat of the French fleet, still did not abandon plans to seize England. Many believe that he expected to simply intimidate Churchill. For this, the operation “Sea lion” was developed. Let's briefly say about the intended goals.
The main blow was to deliver Field Marshal von Rundstedt, who achieved the defeat of France. For this, an army group "A" was created.It included the 16th Army of General E. Bush and the 9th Army of General A. Strauss. 16 The army was to begin loading in the Pas-de-Calais area and land on the coast between Ramsgit and Bexhill. 9 The army was to leave Le Havre and land between Brighton and the Isle of Wight.
Army Group B of Field Marshall von Boca was to leave the Cherbourg area and land in Lime Bay between Weymouth and Lime Regis. It was assumed that about 90 thousand people would be sent to the first wave, about 260 thousand people would be allotted to England.
The landing of the amphibious assault force was to be accompanied by air cover. It was also assumed that future reinforcements would also be deployed by aviation.
In the second wave, it was planned to send the main armored forces involved in the operation - about 6 tank and 3 motorized divisions.
Further plan after disembarkation
If a miracle nevertheless happened, and the Germans managed to overcome the English Channel, then the further Sea Lion operation in World War II was supposed to take place as follows: Army Group A captures the bridgehead and starts an offensive in the south-east to the line Gravesand, Southampton. 6 The army of Reichenau should advance north to Bristol. The goal is to capture Maldon and block Wales.Flank attacks should have surrounded the capital of England.
Operation Sea Lion in World War II was approved on July 16, 1940, but was never carried out. Our military historians associate its abolition with the defeat of the Nazis near Moscow. Western historians, accustomed to ignore the merits of our country, argue that the reason for the refusal is a victory in the “Battle of Britain”. About her a little more.
"Battle of Britain"
The term "Battle of Britain" was introduced by Churchill himself. He put this event on a par with the victory at Waterloo. In fact, this was the first stage of the Sea Lion. The Germans understood that it was impossible to land a landing under any circumstances. The British understood that it was impossible to allow at least one motorized division to land on Misty Albion.
The operation to seize England was possible only with full air supremacy. Before the start of the landing of the German assault force, it was first necessary to destroy the British Air Force, then with the help of aircraft to destroy the English Navy and only then to land the assault forces. The British Air Force survived and saved England, although the final rejection of the capture of England was associated with defeats on the Eastern Front against the USSR.
Start of the bombing
On August 7-8, the bombing of England, codenamed "Eagle Raid", began.The Germans destroyed everything: residential buildings, infrastructure, credit organizations, etc. It even got to Buckingham Palace. The Germans did not have a clear plan for the conduct of the bombing. Hitler thought that the British would demand peace immediately, as the first bombs would fall on London. He was mistaken: instead of fear and panic, the British began to feel anger and hatred towards the Germans.
January 9, 1941, it was decided to permanently abandon the landing of troops in England.