At the beginning of the 20th century, the main thing in Russia was the agrarianquestion. At that time, tsarism adhered to economic policy, which was aimed to a greater extent to maintain the aristocratic landownership, which is in decline. The state sought to actively intervene in the relations between the peasant and the landlord, resorting to various measures with a "police" purpose - to weaken the peasant opposition by defending landlord interests.
After the convocation of the New Duma by the chairman of the Councilministers are appointed Pyotr Arkadievich Stolypin. The situation in which Russia was then, demanded radical changes. Stolypin became the man who could carry them out. The changes began in the early 1900s.
Stolypin's agrarian reforms were carried out on the basis of the decree of 1906 of 9 November.
Several new goals have been pursued.
Stolypin's reforms, in the first place, wereare aimed at creating in the villages a solid foundation of strong owners who would support the autocracy. This was supposed to be achieved through the split of the peasantry. In other words, strong peasant farms, cut off from the bulk, had to contain the onslaught of the revolution in the countryside.
The second goal pursued by the reformsStolypin, - socio-economic - consisted in the desire to destroy the community, to develop private farms. The labor force, which turned out to be abundant, was supposed to be sent to support the rapidly developing industry in the city.
The third goal - economic - was to ensure the development of agriculture and further industrialization in the country.
Thus, Stolypin and his reforms would eliminate the backwardness of Russia from the advanced states of the world.
The changes were to be carried out according to a scheme, including consistently conducted and interrelated activities. The main directions of the Stolypin reform were:
- the formation of private property;
- elimination of communities;
- formation of a peasant bank;
- cooperative movement;
- resettlement of peasants;
- agricultural activities.
The Decree of 9 November introduced significant changes in thepeasant landownership. People got the right to leave the community and assigned a piece of land to each of them. It should be noted that not all peasants agreed on the forthcoming changes. The government therefore took measures to forcibly remove the communities.
According to the tsar's instructions in 1906-07, the Peasantthe bank received part of the state and individual lands. Assets were supposed to be sold to fill the land deficit. The peasants at the same time were significantly reduced loan, they were presented with benefits. With the help of the Bank, there was an active impact. So, for the peasants who bought land for private use, payments were reduced.
The peasants were also given the rightrelocation without any restrictions. At the same time, government assignments were made to build people in new places. The resettled peasants were given medical care, they covered public expenses, construction of roads.
Credit relations allowed to developconsumer, marketing, production cooperatives. Peasants created oil and dairy artels, consumer shops, agricultural societies.
The main obstacle to developmenteconomic progress was considered a low crop culture, as well as illiteracy of most producers. During the reforms, the peasants received large-scale assistance in the form of specially formed agro-industrial services. The work of these organizations was aimed at conducting training courses on the introduction of advanced and studying the subtleties of existing forms of production.
Despite the large-scalethey have failed. Causes, due to which the conceived course was not realized, many factors are considered. Among them, of course, is the death of Stolypin himself. In addition, historians note the limitations of the peasantry, its unpreparedness for change. However, if Stolypin's reforms were implemented, then, according to researchers, Russia would have avoided the October Revolution.