The main types of compositions in art
Art, stepping on the fine line of harmony, must be within the framework of something strict, clearly defined, unshakable, which will not allow him to take this easy step from the mysterious, the beautiful to the ugly and inert. This constraining unit is the composition, its types, laws, techniques. It is she who makes all works of art so harmonious and complete. In the article we will analyze this concept, types of composition, their embodiment in various areas of this beautiful sphere.
What is composition?
In the most general meaning of the word, composition is the main organizing element of absolutely any artistic form. It is his task - to give the creation of integrity and unity, to show the idea of the artist understandable and complete, to subordinate all the components of the work, put them in the system.
Types of compositions in painting, art, for example, are associated with a clear placement of the objects drawn in space, a harmonious ratio of volume, size, light and shadow.In other areas of art has its own components of the composition.
Receptions in the composition
In addition to the types of composition, it is important to know its techniques. There are several:
- Asymmetry and symmetry.
- Dynamics and statics.
- A certain rhythm.
- Golden section.
- The center of the work is semantic or compositional.
The laws of composition
The composition of any work is subject to the laws. It:
Types of compositions in art
Surprisingly, all graphic, sculptural, architectural compositions can be divided into only three types:
Let us examine each type in detail.
A different name for the front view of the composition is planar. This includes the whole range of works created in one plane:
- painting canvases;
- web pages;
- stained glass windows;
- graphic drawings and so on.
The depth of the space here is transmitted in an image in a mass of ways: color spots, play of light and shadow, perspective cuts. However, they only create the illusion of three-dimensional image, while in fact it lies on a plane.
It should be noted that not only works with a smooth surface, but also those having relief — convex elements on a plane, belong to the planar view of the composition. Such a transitional form between volume and plane is called front-volume composition.
Relief helps to exacerbate the illusion of the depth of space at the expense of constantly or slightly changing its level. The greater the number of protruding elements and the deeper the relief, the more the product is farther from the front and closer to the bulk. The artist’s plan is conveyed by the following types of reliefs:
- Bas-relief (low relief) - ornament, sculpture composition, only slightly protruding above the planar image.
- High relief - in this case, the sculptural composition is 3/4 above the plane background.
- Reverse relief - the sculptural image does not protrude above the plane, but as if pressed into it.
- Glyptica - the image is on the same level with the plane of the entire work, but its outlines are deeply carved by the artist.
Another main type of composition is volumetric.This includes the development of the plot, composition in three-dimensional space: the work on the plane necessarily has a depth. This type is typical for:
The volumetric work has the following distinctive features:
- It is necessarily three-dimensional, it can be viewed from all sides. At the same time, the more space this creation surrounds, the more impressions are created about its appearance, plastic configuration.
- If the form of the composition is monumental, and the inner space between its elements is small, then it seems to the viewer to be dense, solid. If the openings, the distances between the components increase, then we will notice how the composition will begin to turn into a light, dynamic.
- The general form of such a creation is in interaction with the inner space.
- For all the complexity of its form, the work looks like a single, integral object. The volume of the form is allocated in space.
- External space only surrounds the composition, but does not penetrate into it.
We continue to sort out what types of compositions exist. Another is spatial, for which the dimensions of space are important,in which the work is concluded. Moreover, the artist pays great attention to each, even the smallest element of such a composition. These include the following works:
- theatrical performances:
- interior design;
- landscape design;
- design of stands, exhibition pavilions and so on.
The organization of space is carried out in two ways:
- Open space (around objects). A vivid example are the Egyptian pyramids, around which the space spreads.
- Closed space (inside objects). These are interiors, halls of the museum, architectural complexes from squares, quarters, cathedrals and other ensembles.
Spatial composition is created from two important elements:
- Volumes that create this space.
- Various materials, which, in turn, form these volumes.
Categories of composition
We considered different types of compositions in the visual arts. They should be distinguished from types, categories. The latter are represented by the following components:
- A work with the use of symmetry.
- Objects in the work move from the viewer or to him.
- Objects in the composition are moving towards the viewer.
- The composition is clearly visible in the work.
- The space is built in color.
- The construction of space is plastic.
- Interior space construction.
- Dismemberment into plans - the main, main stage and background are clearly visible. Sometimes added third, fourth and subsequent plans.
- Dismemberment - here the figures create space, instead of being located in it, being higher or lower on the canvas, overlapping each other, differing in the degree of completeness of the image. An example of this type would be an icon.
Typology of composition
Types of composition in literature, painting, sculpture may differ from each other by figurative means. The gradation of the typology presented below is based on this.
Subject story. In other words, narrative. Such a composition is the basis of realistic works: sculptures, paintings, and so on. It involves real characters, each with its own role and attitude towards another or the other. The composition requires thoughtful familiarization, analysis from the particular to the general.
Decorative and thematic. The plot of such a composition is subject to decorative purposes.Usually is part of a larger work. These are interiors of premises, illustrations for books, folk art and so on.
For such compositions important capacious and concise, but a generalized image. By various means of expressiveness, the artist tries to focus the viewer's attention on certain of his features. The theme image is highlighted based on associations. For example, the sea is a ship, schools of fish, sailors, seashells, waves, etc.
The technique and material often depend on the chosen theme. Village life will be depicted on popular prints, the history of ancient Egypt is framed in the form of a fresco, etc. Sometimes the artist depicts the same image in several interpretations. The sun as a motive for Volgograd lace, praising the god Ra by the ancient Egyptians, the plot for multicolor national Tajik painting and so on.
Composition of subject forms. In other words, it is still life. An image of ordinary things that can cause aesthetic delight. The objects here are interdependent, and the plot is alive thanks to a certain combination of them. These works are characterized by a symbolic meaning, the viewer, when considering them, should be born figurative associations. The image can be both naturalistic and in the form of a sketch only.
In its present form, the composition of subject forms is characteristic of artistic photographs and collages compiled in a graphic editor.
Formal. The second name is not pictorial, because It is built from spots and lines. These artistic images can not exist in reality, they have no practical and rational significance. It is not the plot, the meaning that is important, but the plastic forms, principles and laws of their construction. Emotions in the viewer here are precisely the artistic form, color, plastic. Abstract images of such a composition arise from symbols, geometric shapes, simplified images of real objects.
Composition in the literature
There are two grades of composition types in the literature. Consider them in more detail.
The first classification is as follows:
- Architectonics, external composition. This is what stands out graphically: the division of the work into chapters, paragraphs and paragraphs, the presence of a prologue and an epilogue, various footnotes and comments, epigraphs, author's digressions, and so on.
- Narrative, inner composition. Here the attention is focused on the content of the creation: images and their system, plot, structure of speech situations, highlighting the strong components of the text - leitmotif, climax, denouement, final.
The following gradation of types of literary compositions is as follows:
- Thematic. In the center are the relationship of the main characters. It is additionally divided into a consistent (smooth transition from one thought to another), based on the development and transformation of the image of a literary hero and holding on to the comparison of images of literary heroes.
- Mirror. When reading the reader there is a feeling that some images, episodes are symmetrical.
- Ring(framed). The piece begins and ends with the same scene.
- Feedback. Events in the book evolve from the final scene to its origins, reasons.
Types of flower arrangements
In conclusion, consider such an art form as floristry.
Types of flower compositions here are the most diverse:
- Varieties of arrangements of cut flowers: bouquets, compositions in wall, floor, table, hanging, high, flat and low vases, in special stands, macrame, baskets, snags, tree bark.
- Bouquet as a composition is divided into festive and everyday.
- Forms of bouquet compositions: round, linear, one-sided, loosely assembled, massive, of various sizes (5-50 cm).
Composition is an important organizational form in art.It is she who makes any work complete, meaningful, worthy of the emotions of the viewer, the reader. Each of her views, as we have seen, is that in the visual arts, in literature, that in floristics has its own unique features, the laws of the construction of a work by the artist.