The subject of labor is. The object and subject of labor
Labor is the process during which a person transforms the real reality in order to obtain various benefits and meet the needs of both material and ideal. Labor as a type of human activity is a conscious manipulation and conscious influence on objects, phenomena and information about the surrounding reality.
Labor as an object of academic study
Labor is the object of studying several areas of philosophy, sociology, psychology and economics. As a type of human activity, labor is of tremendous value both for the individual and for society.
A distinctive feature of the labor process is its focus on the result. The goal is always the product, that is, the material or ideal goods needed to meet the needs of an individual, a group of people, or society as a whole.
During work, a person forms his attitude towards reality and creates a place for himself in the real objective world. It is not surprising that this activity has a number of complex components and complex characteristics. There are two sides of the labor process: the objective and the subjective. The objective side, in turn, consists of the subject, conditions, tasks and results of labor. Also labor activity is divided into types depending on a number of different characteristics and approaches.
Parties to the process
In any form of labor activity, there are two components of the party, which are called the object of labor and its subject.
The objective side does not depend on the individual and is a social norm of the process, which includes the established and clearly limited structure and composition of the activity. The object of labor is called the normative characteristics, the number and structure of operations required in a particular profession.
The subjective side of labor is his psychogram, that is, the psychological side, which depends largely on the personal qualities of a person and his attitude to the object of activity.The subject is a set of human qualities necessary for the individual to successfully implement the labor process. Characteristics such as professional ability, creative orientation, stress resistance, ambition and motivation, constitute the subjective side of the process and are not only prerequisites for successful work, but also its direct result.
The objective composition of labor
Any type of work is determined by a number of rules, regulations and requirements - all this is an objective composition of labor. In simple words, these are answers to the questions: “What to do?”, “How?”, “From what?”, “With what?”, “For what?” And a number of others.
The object and subject of labor are often perceived as synonyms, but the concept of an object is much broader and includes a number of characteristics. They may vary by profession and occupation.
The objective composition of the labor process includes the following components:
- the subject of labor;
- activity objectives;
- necessary actions;
- tools and implements;
- result of the process.
Subject area of the concept
Like any other academic discipline, in the process of studying and structuring work, a number of similar terms arise.In the process of academicization of work, such concepts as “object” and “objective side” or “subject” and “subject area” are often confused.
The subject of labor is any material object, phenomenon, idea or information that is under the influence of human activity in order to transform and turn them into a blessing.
Some academic sources consider the term synonymous with the “subject area,” which is, in fact, a wrong assumption. As with the objective side, the subject area is a much broader concept. It covers a wide range of characteristics, which represent the entire professional experience and its components, and not only the means and objects of labor.
As in the case with the object, which is a simple concept, included in a more complex and complex, the subject area includes the object, the means, as well as the objective and emotional side of the process. At the same time, the subject of labor is the material or ideological basis of the finished product. In fact, this is what the final result is made of.
For example, the subject of the academician's work is the existing information, which he transforms into new knowledge. New knowledge is an intangible good, in fact, they are the achieved perfect product. They can be perceived by other academicians as existing information, in turn, turning into a new subject. In this case, the result of labor activity, which later acts as an object of labor, is called raw material.
Depending on the type of professional activity, the categories that define the labor process may differ dramatically. For example, the subject of managerial labor is the activity of the collective as a whole and of each person who is part of it.
Division of labor
Types differ based on some characteristics.
- According to the method of attracting a person to work, the types there are divided into voluntary, forced and compulsory.
- According to the content of the activity, the work is divided into simple and complex, reproductive and creative (creative), special (set of functions) and professional, mental and physical.
- According to the nature of the activity, such types as individual and collective, private and public, hired and self-employed labor are distinguished.
- According to the conditions, the following types are distinguished: free and formal, light and heavy, stationary and mobile.
- In the use of means and tools labor activity is manual, mechanized and automated.
- Focusing on the result of labor activity, the material and non-material types of labor differ; they are also called production and non-production.
- By the time of the activity and the result of the work can be present and past.
Practically everyone is capable of various types of work, from simple production of material products to creative self-realization in creating ideal goods. Each activity, regardless of complexity and results, is a source of self-education, social and personal experience and development.