Top floor: design and construction
Attic floor can be an ornament to any country house. Today such a constructive decision is made very often during the design, and for the first time the idea to turn an abandoned attic into a dwelling was visited by French architect Francois Mansart back in 1630.
Features of arrangement
Attic can occupy the entire area of the building, and may be located on a separate part of it. At the same time, modern projects offer ample opportunities to create the attic floor of any architectural solution.
A house with an attic floor is a dream of many, since it is possible to efficiently use the existing living space, saving money and useful land area. And if the cottage was built taking into account the technological intricacies of construction, then you can reduce the cost of the roofing system. In addition, the attic arrangement has a number of features:
- This floor is exposed to natural factors from above and below - due to the flow of warm air from the living room to the top.
- The design of the attic should be thought out from the point of view of heat, steam and waterproofing.
- Roof covering should be chosen correctly.
Through the attic floor, a lot of heat is lost due to the lack of a “heat cushion”. Therefore, you need to carefully consider ensuring a high level of insulation using efficient materials. This clever design will remove the inevitable stream of moist air that can break even through the heat-insulating layer.
Thinking through the construction of the attic, you need to analyze the layout of the building. In addition, modern companies are going to meet their customers by offering the best solutions for their requirements. The construction of the attic floor involves consideration of several parameters:
- analysis of the foundation of the building;
- a clear relationship between the attic and the communication system of the building;
- all rooms in the house must communicate with each other;
- at arrangement of a penthouse an important role is played by its form, the sizes.
The main requirement in the construction of the attic - the use of lightweight structural elements, while the load on the foundation should be optimal.
Where to begin?
Attic floor is built only after the construction and technical expertise of the building. This is necessary to determine the load that will fall on the walls and the foundation of the building. Then the attic is designed and the finished project is approved by the customer. In addition, the attic can be erected only after obtaining the necessary permits.
Projects attic floors are subject to certain rules. Before designing you need to answer a few questions:
- Attic will be residential or non-residential.This floor can be made a full-fledged recreation area, and you can equip for storing unnecessary things.
- Consider the minimum height of the roof. Most often it varies from 2.5 to 3.5 meters. Experts do not recommend violating these parameters.
- Decide on the type of windows.They can occupy up to 20% of the total area or be small. In any case, full insolation will be provided.
Variety of shapes and sizes
Attic floor can be performed in different geometric forms, which opens up great opportunities for the realization of different architectural solutions.In this case, the attic can be formed as a single-level separate floor, a two-level floor or mezzanine. The simplest solution is a double-slope roof, which consists of straight rafters connecting the walls and the runway bar - they are arranged in parallel. This attic is simple in calculations and design, as well as in installation.
If the roof is broken, then the rafters are grouped in two or more parts, which form a broken line. Such a solution is a great opportunity to increase the space in the attic, as well as give the house an interesting look. Projects of houses with a mansard floor with portable consoles look interesting. This will make the space under the attic even more.
We take into account the design features
Attic - a room that connects the walls to the ceiling. With steep slopes, it will be spacious and with a high ceiling. Its construction requires compliance with building codes that regulate: the height between the floor and the ceiling should be at least 2.3 m. With a height of less than 1.5 m, the room is not considered residential. An important constructive point is the tightening of the rafters - the quality of the entire roof depends on the quality of their performance.
How to build?
A house is a structure with a number of requirements.Construction of the attic should also be carried out in accordance with certain rules on the basis of project documentation. Any deviation from the specified parameters will lead to the fact that the design of the attic floor will be broken, and hence the safety of the building will be lower. When erecting walls, it is necessary to use materials that are characterized by incombustibility and non-toxicity.
The erection of the roof is a crucial stage, where you need to take into account the impact of external factors on the roof, and the load on the foundation. An important role is played by the attic insulation using modern technologies and materials. Internal insulation involves the use of several materials at once:
- finishing materials - drywall or plywood;
- vapor barrier using special films;
- thermal insulation using porous materials;
- waterproofing, which will also divert water;
To provide high-quality lighting, installation of windows is required. The main thing is their tightness, as well as reliable protection from precipitation.
How to make an interior?
Finishing the attic floor involves wall insulation - it is carried out both outside and inside.In addition, they can be insulated using fiberboard plates, clapboard or plasterboard, while at the same time you need to put polyethylene foam or isolon under the crate. It is best to perform warming with soft rolled materials, which are convenient to work with. If the roof is a non-standard configuration, then the use of plate materials is impractical. The heat-insulating layer can be fixed in different ways - it depends on the design features of the roof.
When using mineral wool, a vapor barrier film is attached on top of it, which is reinforced with bars. And the best solution is to use a material that already has a vapor barrier ready layer. An important role is played by the gap that is left between the waterproofing and insulation layer - this will ensure good ventilation. Finishing the attic floor requires special attention to the floor: it is better to warm it with bulk materials - expanded clay or polystyrene foam. The floor is covered with plastic wrap, installation of wooden lags is performed, after which the resulting cells are covered with insulation.
The interior design of the attic floor depends on the purpose for which the room will be used. If the construction was made of wood, then this material should prevail in the design. This will provide additional thermal insulation, as well as provide a favorable indoor microclimate. Most often, lining is used for decoration - it allows you to create an interesting interior that will differ in its features. Wood panels can also be used in the design: it is easy to work with them, while the surface will look beautiful and colorful.
If the room in the attic will be used as an office or living room, you can use MDF panels. It is also possible to make the interior of the attic floor bright with the help of drywall: the material is easy to work with, so it can be used to decorate partitions, arches, columns, and even suspended ceilings.
Baths with attic
The desire to save on the construction of a house or bath leads to the fact that we order an individual design. Most often, an attic is chosen as an addition, which gives each building a unique look.It is advantageous to build saunas with an attic floor, since several issues are solved at once:
- An additional area is created.The construction of the attic will be cheaper than the construction of a tier, for example, in a two-story house, while you can reduce costs by approximately 35%.
- Saves space on the site.Building a bath with an attic is an opportunity to rationally use a small area, when residential and technical premises are combined in one building.
- Multifunctional building.Attic can be used for any purpose - above the bath you can equip a recreation room, for example, for guests, or a cozy seating area with a massage table.
Bathrooms with a mansard is a winning solution when you want to build not just a bathhouse, but a beautiful building from the point of view of architecture and planning. Most often they are built of wood - timber or logs, but in recent times more economical material is widely used - foam blocks. When building a bath with an attic, it is worth remembering a few nuances:
- It requires a competent approach to the insulation between floors, since moisture and steam from the bath will go up.To avoid the appearance of fungus, mold in the attic, you need to perform high-quality insulation between floors.
- Attic roof should be carefully insulated. True, this is necessary if the second floor will be operated throughout the year. Accordingly, it is impossible to manage without reliable protection, and first of all it should be aimed at protection against frost.
Most often, the bath house projects with an attic suggest the presence of an open terrace, a hallway, a large dressing room, a washing room and a steam room on the first floor. Attic is also reserved for a small recreation area, a guest room. Of course, each project is built depending on the wishes of the customer and their capabilities, as well as the characteristics of the site.
Attic is a great addition to any home, both in terms of functionality and in terms of decorative additions to buildings. However, in order for this dwelling to be operated as comfortably and safely as possible, it is necessary to carefully consider the choice of materials for heat and waterproofing. An important role is played by correct calculations based on the total area and geometry of the attic room.