Veliky Novgorod: attractions. Description and photo
Russia is a huge country. It is not surprising that some completely different cities and regions have similar names. These include, for example, Veliky Novgorod and Nizhny Novgorod, the Altai Territory and the Altai Republic. People who have never been to those places or simply have not come across everyday information with accurate information often confuse, unite or mutually replace these settlements. What are the Great and Nizhny Novgorod attractions? Photos with a description of certain objects can often be seen in the city souvenir shops.
So, we will understand in order. At the time of Kiev and Udelnaya Rus, western (territory of modern Ukraine) and northern lands were well developed. The modern central part of the country gained political and economic sovereignty in the XIII - XIV centuries. Therefore, Novgorod can rightfully be considered a model of ancient culture and statehood.Sights are represented by monuments of architecture, iconography and many other objects.
Location and settlement
In ancient times, people often settled along rivers and lakes. Waterways served as roads and food sources. Therefore, it is no coincidence that Lake Ilmen and the rivers flowing into it have always had an abundance of settlements. The first recorded inhabitants of those places are Finno-Ugric tribes.
Gradually, Slavs began to settle on the territory. By the 9th century, they had a certain state education; at that very moment representatives of all tribes decided to invite the Scandinavian ruler, accompanied by a squad. So the genus Rurik was founded in a city called Veliky Novgorod. Sights that have come down to modern times appeared there a little later.
The first step to strengthen the economy was the accession of new lands. Under the leadership of Prince Igor, the army, consisting of local tribes and the Varangian squad, conquered the territory of Smolensk, then Kiev. These spaces were populated by kindred peoples.This item was very important, so formed a direct safe trade route, which allowed visiting Byzantium and returning back to Veliky Novgorod. Sights of those times are represented only by natural objects and the results of archaeological excavations.
The unifying center was Kiev. With the advent of the first ties with Constantinople, Orthodoxy began to penetrate Russia. One of the first baptized rulers was Princess Olga. Part of the population and the guards voluntarily chose monotheism. In the scientific community there is an opinion that it was thanks to Christianity that the Slavs had the opportunity to further develop as a single nation.
When Prince Vladimir adopted Orthodoxy, Veliky Novgorod became one of the pillars of the faith. The sights of this period are temples. The Church of St. Sophia the Wise was originally wooden. Then, after the fire, they built a stone building. It is a five-nave cross-dome system. The bell of St. Sophia convened the Veche on its square. After joining Moscow, he was removed. The temple itself has become a symbol of the independence of the city-state.
There were frescoes on the vaults.Most of the images are irretrievably lost in the XX century. In 1929, the Soviet government in the cathedral banned worship and arranged a museum. The premises were especially hard hit during the Great Patriotic War. In 1991, the building was transferred to the diocese.
Also has other Veliky Novgorod attractions. They can be divided into several types. First of all, these are churches and monastic complexes. Svyato-Yuriev, Varlaamo-Khutinsky, Desyatinny, Anthony, Nikolo-Vyazhischsky, Mihailo-Kropsky monasteries, the Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior, Sofia are just a small list of the most ancient Orthodox shrines in the city and in its immediate vicinity. Many of these buildings date from the XI - XII centuries and represent a high cultural value.
Princely farmsteads - another type of buildings preserved in a city like Veliky Novgorod. Sights (photos convey the best features of ancient architecture) attract the attention of tourists. No less interesting are numerous sculptures and whole compositions.
An important tourist site is the Novgorod Kremlin, also called Detinets.Written sources for the first time mention the construction in 1044. However, the 1490 version came to our time. Until then, the Kremlin was completely rebuilt, gradually increasing its area. Only the place has remained unchanged. So, archaeologists find traces of old walls in the depths of the mound. These are important sights of the city of Novgorod. For a long time, the fortress carried the military load, so it was regularly updated in accordance with the development of weapons.
This complex is located on the bank of the Volkhov, opposite the Kremlin. This is a traditional trading place of the city of Veliky Novgorod. Sights, photos with a description of which are presented in the article, are mostly cubic in shape, with a conical camouflaging into the sky. On the territory of many temples, they were often the most reliable place to store goods for export.
"Millennium of Russia"
It was opened in 1862, marking the moment of the birth of Russia by Rurik coming to power. The monument has an impressive scale - 16 meters high and 9 in diameter. On the granite dome-shaped pedestal is installed a ball-power surrounded by bronze figures.They recorded the role played in the life and development of the state of Novgorod. Sights, photos indicate the advanced nature of the development of the city.
This stela is set in memory of the soldiers who died in January 1942 during the operation to liberate Leningrad. Thus, as a result of the offensive, the 2nd Shock Army made a breakthrough in the area of the village of Myasnoy Bor. The situation was very dangerous, the forces were not equal, the troops could get surrounded. But the commander in chief did not allow people to be led away. As a result, 8 divisions and 6 brigades were in the boiler. They lacked the supply and removal of the wounded. It was only at the end of May that the Stavka issued an order for retreat. More than 11 thousand Soviet people remained in a small part of the forest near Meat Bor.
A stone bridge
The three-span structure across the small river Vitochka is another important object located in a city called Veliky Novgorod. Sights of such a plan used to be everywhere, especially on the road from St. Petersburg to Moscow. These buildings date back to the end of the XVIII century. By order of Catherine II, most of the wooden bridges across small rivers were replaced with stone versions with one, two or three vaults, depending on the width of the channel.Currently Novgorod is one of the last surviving copies.
This name is given to the style of the building of the Novgorod Academic Drama Theater. F. M. Dostoevsky. It was built in 1987. It is a unique combination of concrete structures and non-standard forms. Thus, not only vintage has Veliky Novgorod attractions. Photos with a description of the plan indicate what was supposed to hold city events on the site in front of the main building.
If you get out of the city, then at the confluence of the Shcheglets creek in Vishera, you can see a stone with ancient inscriptions dating from the II-I centuries BC. Also lovers of wooden architecture and ethnography are waiting for the Novgorod Vistoslavitsa Museum.
The central cathedral from ancient times to this day is Sofia. However, the city of Novgorod has no less ancient sights. Among them is the monastery founded by Yaroslav the Wise in 1030 in honor of St. George, in whose name the prince was baptized. The church is called the changed dialect name - Yuriev. After 70 years, stone walls were erected in the same place.
On the territory of the complex are the graves of many princes and their families. In 1611 - 1617 the complex suffered during the Swedish ruin. But at the same time an important event occurred for the Orthodox community - the acquisition of the relics of Fyodor Yaroslavich. Wanting to find the treasure, the robbers opened the graves. Reaching one of them, the Swedes discovered an imperishable body. In XX, the fate of this monastery was similar to many others - the removal of values, the dispersal of the brethren, desolation, destruction, the return of the building of the ROC ...
On the border of Russia at that time, in the place where the Oka flowed into the Volga in 1221, Prince Yury Vsevolodovich founded the city. He began to be called Nizhny in connection with the location of the main Novgorod lands. The fortress defended the borders of the state from nomadic people. So there was Nizhny Novgorod. Sights of those years are represented by archaeological data.
After the devastation of the Mongolian troops, the settlement quickly recovered and expanded. Thanks to a successful location, trade was actively developing, and the city began to claim the role of the capital. For 50 years (from 1341 to 1392) it was the center of a separate principality.At the beginning of the 6th century, stone walls were laid.
In the time of troubles for the liberation of the country from the invaders, Nizhny Novgorod provided the main military force. Sights often depict Minin and Pozharsky, who gathered and led the militia. After the accession of the Romanovs, the region got the opportunity to quickly develop production, economy and culture. Also appeared shipbuilding.
After the annexation of Kazan and Astrakhan, the city became the cross-over point of goods turnover from all the eastern direction. Here there was an overload of products from large vessels on floating means of smaller displacement for further movement along small rivers of Russia.
In 1714 the status of the provincial center was assigned, so new sights of Nizhny Novgorod appeared. The photo with the descriptions of the places of the first printing house, manufactories and many other things keeps the museum of local lore. Many well-known figures somehow connected with these places. Among them are the inventor Kulibin, Lobachevsky, Damaskin, the historian Ilyinsky, the Decembrists Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Trubetskoy, Muravyov and others. He studied the history of the Pugachev rebellion Pushkin.
At the beginning of the XIX century there is a strong urban development shift. A mass of administrative and commercial buildings are being erected, which later became the hallmark of the city.
The most famous place is Bolshaya Pokrovskaya Street. On it are the main attractions of Nizhny Novgorod. Photos with the names of famous houses are sold in sets of memorable cards. Currently, the space is a pedestrian zone connecting the Minin Square with the Square. Lyadov.
The buds of each house are the possessions of a noble family, a prosperous merchant, or an administrative building. It is not surprising that in the XIX century only aristocracy was walking here. Nowadays it is especially pleasant that city visitors get on this beautiful street, having walked several tens of meters from the exit from the metro.
Also in the style of Russian classicism built the House of the Nobility Assembly. The combination of military power and fabulous intricacy of the State Bank amazes you with your imagination.
Also here are other attractions of Nizhny Novgorod. Photos with the names of the sculptures are often purchased by tourists.Bronze compositions adorn the entire length of the street. Among them are the Postman, the Girl with the Mirror, the Goat, the Violinist and others.
When a traveler comes to the end of “Pokrovka” - as the street is called by local residents, Minin Square opens up to the view, and to its left is the Dmitrovskaya Tower and the fortress wall. The first wooden fortifications were on this place since the founding of the city. From 1500 to 1516 built a stone version. After the construction was completed, the fortress was never surrendered to enemies.
By the end of the seventeenth century, the structure had ceased to be of military importance. Government offices and museum attractions in Nizhny Novgorod began to be located there. Photos describing the towers and fortifications made at the beginning of the last century.
In Soviet times, the complex was in grave danger. Developed projects for the demolition of the wall with towers for the organization of the area. But the Great Patriotic War broke the plans, and in 1949 it was decided to restore the cultural monument. During the period of hostilities, the towers again carried out service — anti-aircraft installations were installed on the upper platforms, and enemy aircraft were fired upon as they approached the city.
This is the longest descent on the banks of the Volga.In honor of the victory in the Battle of Stalingrad, a bookmark was made in a city like Nizhny Novgorod, sights. Photos of beautiful panoramas attract tourists to see everything with their own eyes. It starts not far from the walls of the Kremlin and goes down to the river. Officially has 560 steps, divided into groups of viewing platforms. At the end of the building there is a monument - the “Hero” boat.
Most recently, the Volga was a route for the movement of the funicular. It connects Bor and Nizhny Novgorod. Sights of the city of this kind are not very common in Russia. The height of the supports is 82 meters, and the length is the largest in Europe - 3661 m. The journey time is about 15 minutes, along with the landing. The townspeople are in great demand - in just a quarter of an hour the road is overcome, which could have taken 2 hours earlier.
Often attracted to the cable car guests of the city. From the bird's-eye view there is a beautiful view of the river and barges and ships sailing along it. And from the seen distance at which the passenger hangs in the air, and the depth of the water at first is breathtaking.
A very large area is Nizhny Novgorod. Sights, photos of which will add to the collection of each traveler, are quite common. So, a wonderful area for hiking is the Upper Volga embankment. Here everyone can find something to their liking. On the one hand - the Volga and the review of its course. On the other - historical buildings, which often houses museums.
All the way there are small depressions extending from the common pavement. Going into them, you can move away from the general flow of people. This place is popular with locals and visitors alike. Often there you can meet people involved in jogging.
Nizhny Novgorod has a special cultural environment. Sights (photos) and posters of performances of outstanding groups and artists can be seen on bulletin boards. The city is distinguished by the presence of its performing schools on classical and folk instruments. However, it is difficult to surprise with a good opera theater or a city symphony orchestra - in each major center these groups are at the proper level.Much less common are versions of a folk orchestra with international mastery. That is what the State Russian Folk Orchestra of the city called Nizhny Novgorod. Sights (photos and videos, live performances) of this order also make the place attractive for visitors.
Currently, music and theater festivals, exhibitions, and contests are held there annually. The economy of this region is on the rise, which contributes to the active financial support of the arts.
As we see, the sights of the Great and Nizhny Novgorod are completely different. And although their names are similar, historically and geographically they are completely times objects. In order not to be confused, you should know that the locals in the first case do not use the first part of the phrase and say simply "Novgorod". And Nizhny Novgorod, on the contrary, in everyday life reject the second part, calling the city "Nizhny".