What are the most prosperous countries in history?
Ratings of prosperity of countries today are made up of entire scientific institutions. We decided to look at prosperous countries in world history, in a broad historical perspective.
Canada ranks fifth in our ranking of the most prosperous countries in history. The second country after the country in the world, Canada is still ruled by the Queen of England, the system is a constitutional monarchy, two languages are official: English and French.
Canada could not be in the ranking, its history is replete with wars, Canadian soldiers took part in world conflicts, but today Canada is one of the most economically stable countries, it is annually included in today's well-being ratings.
According to the ratings of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Canada ranks first in the world in the category “Freedom of the person”, more than 74% of Canadians aged 15 to 64 years have paid work,90% of the adult population have a diploma of secondary education, there is a high life expectancy and good ecology.
Fourth place in our ranking, we gave the Novgorod Republic. On the gloomy overall map of the Middle Ages, Novgorod was a fairly bright state.
In the patriotic controversy today and now one can hear that Novgorod had an ideal democracy. Of course, this is difficult to accept. In the heyday of the Novgorod Republic, there were 30-40 of the most noble families who lobbied the decisions of the veche and forced the citizens to vote in their own interests. They were called "300 golden belts."
But it's not a democracy. In Novgorod was one hundred percent literacy. In the middle of the 10th century, in Novgorod, at the state expense, wooden pavements were laid here, in Novgorod there was a drainage system that cleans the streets from excess water. Also in Novgorod was the first water pipe in Russia, the wooden pipes of which are still functioning.
Novgorod had good positions in the international arena, he was one of the partners of the Hanseatic League. In the Novgorod Republic there were trading posts of the Hansa, and the Novgorod authorities, as they say, “gave the green light” to business, without getting involved in the business of trading posts.Novgorod merchants created their own “trade union” - the Merchants hundreds. They concluded trade agreements, the most important point of which was to provide a “clean path”, that is, a safe road through the Baltic and Novgorod land. On the territory of the Novgorod Republic was a rich financial and diplomatic life.
The decline of the Novgorod Republic began under Ivan III, who in 1471 came to Novgorod to prevent his union with Lithuania. In the battle on the river Shelon Novgorod troops were defeated. After 7 years, Ivan III again went on a campaign against Novgorod. This time, in order to arrange a “personnel reform” there, many Novgorod boyars were executed, others were exiled. In their place, Ivan III planted his "serving people." And the veche bell was taken from Novgorod.
In 1570, Novgorod was ravaged by the guardsmen of Ivan the Terrible. According to legend, a dove sat on the cross of the St. Sophia Cathedral and was petrified with horror. To this day, a cross with a dove statue rises in the sky over Novgorod.
The Hansa is a northern European union of German free cities in the 13th — 17th centuries. In our rating of historical well-being, the Ganzu can be noted already because it was a unique education of its kind. It was not just a trade union.According to the degree of its influence, including the map of Europe, the Hanseatic League was in the first places for four centuries.
I had to reckon with Hansa, the union very jealously guarded its interests. As soon as the Norwegians expressed displeasure with the rights of the Hansa trading post, they immediately received an embargo on the supply of wheat.
Hansa trading posts were often even exempted from taxes, they had their own courts. Lubeck, who was called the “Queen of the Hanse” (because there was a transit port between the North and Baltic seas) received the status of the Imperial free city in 1227, and it is the only city with such status east of Elba.
An account of the defeat of Ganza was discovered by Ivan III, already mentioned above. Having defeated Novgorod, he also crushed the Hanseatic trading post, depriving the Ganza of access to the Russian timber marrow, honey and wax. Then England turned away from the Hanse.
New Zealand is an amazing country. There are snow-white mountains, and snow-free beaches, and I want to write about it with such a postcard style. There, even the maps of the world are different - we all go headlong at them. And "The Lord of the Rings" was filmed there.
New Zealand is lucky with its geographical position.There have never been battles of world wars. In last year’s Legatum Institute ranking, New Zealand ranked third in terms of prosperity. This rating is calculated on the basis of eight categories: social capital, education, management, business opportunities, economics, health care, security and personal freedom. The United States occupies the 21st place in it, and Russia - at 68. By the way, it was New Zealand that in 1893 became the first country in the world to grant equal voting rights to women.
Switzerland is simply associated with well-being. This is an expensive watch, and banks, and elite varieties of cheese. The Swiss have achieved all this by their work - world-famous watches for the first time began to make farmers from one of the cantons descending from the mountains at work. And today the Swiss are permanent winners at international vocational education competitions.
In World War II, Switzerland remained neutral. It was impermissible for the Wehrmacht to enter the mountain war. The forty-year-long conquest of the Caucasus by Russia, as well as three bloody Anglo-Afghan wars showed that for complete control over the mountains, decades of armed presence are needed in conditions of constant partisan struggle. Of course, there is a conspiracy version of the refusal to capture Switzerland.