What is a blockade in medicine? Why make a blockade? What drugs are used in the blockade
What is a blockade in medicine? We will understand in more detail in this issue. This procedure is a medical technique in which special medical preparations are administered to a person in a specific part of the body. Basically they are introduced into the nerve points, as well as tissues involved in the innervation of the affected organs. The blockade of a particular area of the body makes it possible to facilitate the general well-being of the patient and exerts a beneficial effect on the disease. One of the main goals pursued by the blockade, and besides, any injections, is the elimination of pain and its source. Find out what are the blockade in medicine. We will also find out which drugs are most often used for their implementation.
What is a blockade in medicine?
One of the most important nuances of the blockade is that the fight against the defeat of a part of the body should be carried out as quickly as possible with the minimum possible negative consequences. In addition, it is important that in the framework of the blockade there is no extra time.
So, the blockade is an event that acts as efficiently as possible. It is not surprising that modern medicine uses this method of treatment. Blocks are used in traumatology, surgery, orthopedics, neurology, urology, gynecology, obstetrics, and so on. Now we will find out what types of blockades are divided into medicine. There are several of them.
There is also such a thing as blockade of the bundle of the bundle of His. What it is?
The bundle of His is the part of the heart muscle that constitutes the atypical muscle fibers. She has a trunk and two legs - left and right. The function of these structures is the transmission of electrical impulses arising in the right atrium to the ventricular myocardium. This causes them to contract in a rhythm that corresponds to the rhythm of the atria. In case of violation of the conduction of the impulse, the blockade of the bundle of the His bundle partially or fully develops.
It is complete or incomplete, permanent, intermittent, transient or alternating.
Patients with such a blockade in the absence of the underlying disease do not need therapy.
Types of blockade in medicine
Blockades in medicine are divided into local as well as segmental:
- Local performed directly to the site of the lesion. They are also produced around or below the affected areas. Local blockades are divided into the periarticular type, within which the impact is on the periarticular tissues, as well as on the perineural ones. The last subtype involves the implementation of the blockade in the channels through which the nerves pass.
- Segmental blockages have a mediated effect through cross-nerve tissue. Why make a blockade? About it further.
Paravertebral and vertebral blockade
The segmental type of medical blockade, in turn, is divided into paravertebral, as well as vertebral:
- Paravertebral blockade is a qualified procedure that is performed to relieve or dull the pain. Apply it mainly against the background of back pain. From the technical side, spinal blockade is the introduction by the medical specialist of a special mixture to the affected place.Simply put - it is, above all, an ordinary injection, which is performed near the spine. With it, it is possible for some time to turn off reflexes, significantly reducing swelling and improving the nutrition of the nerve roots. Thus, carrying out paravertebral blockades is necessary for anesthesia, along with preventive measures for the detection of comorbidities. In situations of chronic pain syndrome, muscle spasm is not excluded, which may ultimately be the cause of their inadequate functioning.
- Vertebral spinal blockade is one of the options for the treatment of diseases of the back. As part of therapy, it allows you to get rid of uncomfortable, and in addition, painful sensations, mainly in the lumbar region, and as a diagnostic method, it provides an opportunity to review the picture of diseases associated with the spine in more detail.
Medical blockade. Principle of use
According to the principle of application of the blockade in medicine is divided into therapeutic and diagnostic. What is the difference?
- The therapeutic blockade is a safe method that is necessary for the treatment of syndromes and pathologies,which are accompanied by severe pain, wearing neurological, rheumatoid and postoperative problems.
- Diagnostic blockade gives the doctor the opportunity to quickly determine the exact causes of pain, to make a diagnosis as quickly and accurately as possible. In some situations, painful sensations can result from any inflammation or irritation of structures with pain receptors. After the introduction of the medication into the pain generator, all the discomfort for some time disappears, which gives doctors the opportunity to determine a more accurate diagnosis. From the correct diagnosis directly depends on the effectiveness, as well as the course of treatment. What is the blockade in medicine, they do not know everything.
Basics of blockades in medicine were developed and proposed by Vishnevsky. The main goal was to interrupt the impulses in situations of pleuropulmonary shock, which appears due to injuries in the thoracic region. Thus, the author of the blockade came to some conclusions, on the basis of which various categories of blockades were developed:
- Different in their etiology, the processes of inflammation are subject to the same laws, especially at the stage of development.
- The formation of inflammations can be slowed down or suspended in the event that they are located in a state of serous impregnation of nerve tissue.
- Abscess types of inflammation begin to suppurate, and hidden - appear.
- The restoration of the vascular wall occurs if its physiology has been disturbed as a result of the pathological process associated with impaired tone, and in addition, the permeability of small vessels.
According to Vishnevsky, blockade types were developed, thanks to the use of which medicine took a significant step forward. It is important to note that the procedure should be performed only by highly qualified doctors, since the occurrence of complications in patients is not excluded when making mistakes.
It is important to note that there is not only a blockade for the back. Injections of drugs made in other areas of the body.
Thus, scientists have proposed the following types:
- Cervical blockade. The indications for this type of blockade are injuries of the chest and head.Apply it with pleuropulmonary shock. As part of the complications, it is reported that in one case out of a hundred, in situations of a doctor’s incompetence or because of the peculiarities of the procedure, the needle may enter the carotid artery.
- Short blockade. The indications for this blockade are the presence of inflammation of cellulose or skin in the initial stages. Examples include the occurrence of carbuncles, boils and mastitis. This type of blockade does not cause any complications.
- Perirenal blockade. It is made in case of intestinal obstruction in acute stages, as well as in infiltration, intestinal paresis, shock and renal colic. The main complications are punctures of the kidneys or intestines.
- Presacral blockade. This blockade is performed as part of surgical interventions performed on the intestine. It is also performed in the presence of inflammation in the pelvic region, as well as during the infringement of hemorrhoids. This type of blockade does not cause any complications.
- Case blockade. The indications for it are the presence of inflammatory processes along with snake bites, frostbite, or burns of the extremities.Complications of this blockade does not cause.
- Vital blockade. It is performed in the presence of fractures or damage to the pelvic bone. If the procedure is carried out correctly, it does not cause any complications.
- Intercostal blockade. Intercostal blockade type is most often used in neurology or traumatology. In addition, it is suitable for neuralgia, fracture of the ribs or thoracotomy. In the framework of possible complications, wounding of the arteries, as well as pleural punctures, are possible.
- Local intravenous blockade. It is used for arthritis, tendovaginitis, a purulent disease that spreads to the limbs. Complications of this blockade does not cause.
- Paravertebral blockade. It is used in the presence of injuries of the chest, and in addition, with a broken rib. Complications of this blockade also does not cause.
So, now find out which drugs in medicine are considered the most popular in the implementation of the blockade. What exactly to use?
What drugs are used in the blockade?
Blockades, among other things, are distinguished by their own qualifications. Thus, emit:
- Mono-component blockade, in which only one specific drug is used.
- Ficomponent, in this case use two means.
- Multicomponent, code used more than two drugs.
Popularly holding Novocain blockade. Often, in the implementation of blockades in medicine use this drug. This tool acts as an essential anesthetic. "Novocain" is produced and produced in the form of a solution that is intended for injection. This tool is different in its percentage. For example, it can be from 0.2 to 2%. The pain after using the blockade on the basis of Novocain disappears approximately five minutes after the injection. The resulting effect lasts, as a rule, about two hours. In the overwhelming majority of situations, this time is usually enough to eliminate the pain impulses and, moreover, to improve the well-being of the patients. The disadvantage of using this tool are frequent vascular reactions, along with allergies.
"Lidocaine" is an anesthetic amide properties and today occupies the second place in its popularity in medicine. True, this drug is increasingly claiming to take a leading position and practically overtakes Novocaine.Considering that the injections with Lidocaine are characterized by good permeability, and besides, low toxicity and an absolute absence of negative reactions, it can be said that this medicine is also the best way to carry out the blockade. In addition, "Lidocaine" has an increased therapeutic index. The effect, which generates lidocaine blockade, can last up to several hours.
Bupivacaine is one of the anesthetics of the amide category. The effect of this drug is characterized by a late start of work after ten to twenty minutes from the date of entry. True, the duration of its influence can be from three to five hours. Apply it to perform epidural blockades, and in addition, caudal blockades of peripheral nerves. But in case of its use there is a risk of side effects. In this case, the main risk is the effect of toxins on the heart and kidneys.
"Hydrocortisone" - another tool to perform the blockade, which is a steroid hormone. It is produced and produced in the form of suspensions.This release is due to the fact that this substance is not soluble in water. For this reason, before you enter the body, "Hydrocortisone" must be mixed with anesthetic. Use the presented tool for intra-articular blockades.
"Dexamethasone" is also a hormonal agent, whose activity is thirty times higher when compared with "Hydrocortisone." This drug has almost no effect on the exchange of electrolytes. This drug works very quickly, however, the effect of its use does not last long. Most often, this medication is used for the blockade of soft tissues. It is important to note that there is no necrosis as part of its use.
What other drugs used in the blockade?
"Depomedrol" is one of the forms of "Methylprednisolone", which has a prolonged effect on the body. Most often, the drug is used for intra-articular and intrabursal blockades. It is used to perform injections in soft tissue. As part of the organization of epidural blockades, the medicine is used with special care,as it can serve as one of the main causes of arachnoid.
"Diprospan" serves as a steroid drug. The presented remedy is suitable if it is necessary to eliminate painful feelings or sensations, as well as pathologies in the area of the joints. "Diprospan" is also suitable for the heel spur, but also for the elimination of pain in the spine. The drug begins to act after a few hours, maintaining the effect for up to three weeks. "Diprospan" is used to enter blockages of the neural type. In addition, this medicine is used on soft tissues, including periarticular. Perform by means of "Diprospana" and blockade in the articular bag. It is very effective.
We examined what a blockade is in medicine. Take care and be healthy!