What is the longest river in Russia, Europe, the world?
Russia has never experienced a shortage of fresh water. On the territory of the country there are more than a thousand rivers. And some streams do not even have a name. Among all this water splendor and diversity still stand out giant rivers. They, with a length of more than five hundred kilometers from the source to the mouth, can be counted exactly two hundred and twenty one pieces. But this is not the limit. After all, there are giant rivers with a length of more than four thousand kilometers. There are only four of them in our country: Ob, Lena, Yenisei and Cupid. But what is the longest river in Russia? We will try to answer this question below.
Unlike the mountains, where it is not difficult to determine the highest peak with the help of a level, with rivers it is not so simple. Where to look for the source? What if the river gets its name after the confluence of two or more major tributaries? Ply their length? Sometimes tributaries are longer than the river itself. For example, the Irtysh flows 4248 kilometers, and then flows into the Ob.And this river is 600 km shorter than its own tributary. From the confluence to the mouth, it has a length of 3,650 kilometers. Sometimes the sources are lost somewhere in the middle of the marshes. Small streams remain nameless for a long time. It happened with the river, which was considered on our planet the longest. In the old textbooks on geography it was written that the greatest length is Nile - 6670 km. However, recent studies give the palm to the Amazon. It is not only the longest river on the planet (6,800 km), but also the most affluent. Problems with counting deliver and mouth. Giants erode the coast, forming estuaries and lips. In these areas the water is half salty, mixed with sea water. And finally, the boundaries. Some water arteries flow through different countries and sometimes they have different names at each site. For example, the Western Dvina turns into a Daugava. Let's start by examining the question of what is the longest river in Russia with one name.
It so happened that most of the longest rivers of our country flow beyond the Urals, in the Asian part. On the European territory of Russia, only the Volga nearly falls to four thousand kilometers.Its length is “only” 3690 km. However, this did not prevent it from becoming the largest European river by its length. It is important that the source of this water artery is also located on the territory of the Russian Federation - in the Tver region. But other rivers, which occupy the top lines in the ranking by length, begin in Ukraine, Belarus, China or Mongolia. The Volga is originally ours, from the key, lost in the swamps on the Valdai Hills, right up to the mouth at the Caspian Sea. But the longest river in Russia, flowing under one name - Lena, which flows into the Laptev Sea. Its length is 4269 kilometers. Then follow the Irtysh, Ob, Volga and Yenisei. Also not to mention the Lower Tunguska (2989), Cupid (2824), Ishim and the Urals.
The longest tributary in the world
Irtysh is not an independent river. This is just the left tributary flowing into the Ob. In addition, some distance it flows through the territory of China and Kazakhstan. But if you add only its Russian extent to the main artery, then the problem of which river is longer in Russia becomes unresolved again. Irtysh flows 4248 km. This is the longest tributary in the world. Merging with the Ob, its waters flow another 3,650 km. And this is just before falling into the lip.This Gulf of Ob stretches for another eight hundred kilometers. The river itself flows from the south-east to the north and is formed from the confluence of the Biya and the Katun in the Altai Territory. So consider yourself. If we take into account the tributaries bearing a different name, the Ob is the longest river in Russia. It is also obtained by the longest water artery of the planet - more than seven thousand eight hundred kilometers.
Other reference system
The science of hydrology determines the beginning of the river not from its name, but from the source of its longest inflow. Let's take Lena as an example. This is not the longest river in Russia has a length of 4269 km. But this is only under the name "Lena". And if you count in a scientific way, then you need to calculate the main, the longest inflow. It is Vitim. Why is it so interesting? The fact is that it flows into Lena more than two thousand seven hundred kilometers from its mouth. The upper reaches of the main river are shorter than the Vitim. Therefore, hydrologists calculate the length of the Lena along this main tributary. It is a thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven kilometers long. The tributary itself is formed from the confluence of two rivers - the Vitimkana (141) and the Chiny (132). Since the first one is longer, then the length of Lena is calculated from it. So what do we have? Vitimkan + Vitim + those 2714 kilometers of Lena from the confluence of the main tributary to the mouth.Total we get 4692 kilometers.
Five of the longest river systems of Russia
If you do the calculation as the science of hydrology says, then the distribution of water giants changes somewhat. The title “the longest river in Russia” remains for Ob. However, its length is already inferior to the Amazon, Nil and even the Yangtze. Let's make a simple calculation. The length of the main tributary - the Irtysh - is 4248 km But it connects with Ob only for one thousand one hundred sixty two kilometers to the mouth. Thus, by adding these two numbers we get 5410 km. Second place in the ranking of the longest river systems is the Yenisei. If you add Angara, Lake Baikal and Selenga to its length, you will get five thousand sixty kilometers. Lena with tributaries takes the third position. On the fourth - Cupid with Argun (4444 km). And the Top-5 of these huge river systems Volga closes with its main right “hand” - the Oka (3731 km).
Calculation by state
Well, if we put the territory of Russia at the forefront? Indeed, many giant rivers originate and flow in other states. This, for example, is the case with Ob. Directly through the territory of the Russian Federation runs a length of three thousand and fifty kilometers.From the system of the Yenisei, Russia accounts for 4460 km out of 5060. What is the longest river in our country? Let's make the list so that the reference point was the inflow located in the Russian Federation. In this case, Lena is the longest water artery, since Vitim and Vitimkan are born here. The second long river in Russia is the Ob. We calculate its length by the tributaries Chulym and White Iyus - 4565 km. In third place is the Yenisei. On the territory of Russia flows 4460 km of this mighty river. The fourth position is occupied by Cupid - 4133 km out of a total length of 4444.