What is the metabolism?
Metabolism (metabolism) - a set of chemical reactions involved in maintaining the vital activity of cells and organisms.
There are two types of metabolism:
- Catabolism is a set of processes that, as a result of fermentation of complex organic substances, lead to the production of simpler substances (fatty acids, amino acids, monosaccharides).
- Anabolism - the creation of the body of new substances, tissues and cells from the simpler substances obtained as a result of catabolism (cellular proteins, phospholipids of membranes, polysaccharides).
As a result of catabolism, not onlynew, simpler substances, but also energy, which is then used for anabolism. When the balance between these two processes is violated, the body dies.
Depending on the type of metabolism, all organisms are divided into the following groups:
- If the source of carbon for the body are organic compounds, we are talking about heterotrophs.
- If the source of carbon for the body are the inorganic compounds - these are autotrophs.
- If in the process of photosynthesis plants or bacteria receive energy from sunlight, they are phototrophs.
- If in the process of photosynthesis plants or bacteria receive energy from primary molecules, then these are hemotrophs.
- Bacteria that receive energy from organic compounds are called organotrophs.
- Bacteria that receive energy from inorganic compounds are called lithotrophs.
Proper nutrition implies the consumption of allnecessary for the body of substances: carbohydrate, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and about 20 other inorganic elements. If the body does not receive enough nutrients, there is a malfunction in the body, at which individual cells begin to function incorrectly, and then entire organs.
Basic nutrients obtained with food
- Carbohydrates are involved in the construction of cellularstructures, create a supply of nutrients in the body, participate in the formation of immunity and perform an energy function. A person gets carbohydrates from starch, sugar and fiber.
- Proteins are the main building material of tissues. Proteins are necessary for the body, since they contain amino acids, obtained as a result of the splitting of proteins. Proteins are found in eggs, milk, fruits, vegetables, soy and cereals.
- Fats - participate in the formation of cellularstructures, form a vital protective pillow and insulation around the internal organs, help absorb fat-soluble vitamins and provide a reserve of energy.
- Minerals and vitamins are part of themetabolic pathways of the body. Vitamins are important organic compounds that the human body can not synthesize on its own and, therefore, it is necessary to ensure that they come in sufficient quantities with food.
Briefly describe what is the metabolism, you can in three stages:
- Splitting of complex substances to simpler ones under the influence of enzymes in the digestive system and sucking them into the blood.
- Transportation of the resulting nutrients to cells and tissues.
- Getting rid of the by-products of metabolism through sweat, urine, feces, with exhaled air, etc.
For more information on this topic, see articles What is a substance and How to accelerate metabolism.