Yevgeny Yevtushenko: biography, creativity and interesting facts from the life of the poet
Yevgeny Yevtushenko is a Soviet and Russian poet, whose popularity peak was in the sixties. Songs written in his most popular domestic films were written on his poems. He also gained fame as a screenwriter, prose writer and publicist.
The biography of Yevgeny Yevtushenko begins in 1933, in a small Siberian city. Father was a geologist. Mother is an actress. The settlement, which is associated with the early period of the biography of Yevgeny Yevtushenko, has an unusual name - Winter. Having become famous, the poet will devote a lyrical work to his native city. "Where are I from? From the Siberian station Zima" - words from Yevtushenko's poem.
In the world of illusions and literature
He has been writing since the age of five. Already at the end of the thirties he created poems, which, not knowing the age of the author, can be taken as works of a poet. At least, so says one of the authors of the biography of Yevgeny Yevtushenko.
Parents supported the study of literature. Thanks to them, the future writer often attended poetry evenings. My father could talk for hours about the work of great Russian and foreign writers. In his autobiography, Yevgeny Yevtushenko once said: "There was a real vinaigrette in my head then. I lived in a world of illusions, did not notice anyone or anything around."
They divorced in the early forties. Since 1944, Eugene lived with his mother in Moscow. But the poet has always had a good relationship with his father. Mother very carefully and carefully treated the works of her son. She collected his poems, often showed them to her ex-husband. And together they discussed the poetic gift of Eugene. But most of the works of the poet lost.
An important period in the biography and work of Yevgeny Yevtushenko - the end of the 50s - the beginning of the 60s. In those years, talented poets gathered entire stadiums. Robert Rozhdestvensky, Bella Akhmadulina, Bulat Okudzhava were real celebrities, hundreds of fans came to listen to their poems.
Yevtushenko was not inferior in popularity to Rozhdestvensky and Akhmadulina. He inherited his mastery of performance from his mother. Zinaida Yevtushenko, as already mentioned,By profession was an actress. In 1938, she became a soloist with the Stanislavsky Moscow Theater. True, she played on stage for only three years. During the war acted on the fronts. After completing her acting career, she entered the Geological Prospecting Institute.
Exclusion from school
In the biography of the poet Yevgeny Yevtushenko there are no sudden ups and downs. His life was relatively favorable, which is not the case with most of his colleagues, for example, Joseph Brodsky. True, at the age of 15, Yevtushenko was expelled from school on charges of arson of the magazine. The father then sent Yevgeny to Kazakhstan, on a geological reconnaissance expedition. For a while, Yevtushenko worked in Altai.
The first works were published in 1949. Oddly enough, they appeared in the newspaper "Soviet Sport". The certificate of secondary education Yevtushenko never received. However, at the age of 19, he entered the Gorky Literary Institute. But he was expelled for supporting the work of Vladimir Dudintsev.
In 1952 Yevtushenko published a collection of poems. Among his early works are many enthusiastic, patriotic, devoted to Lenin and the ideas of communism.Later, the poet will say that the Soviet propaganda is to blame for everything, in whose power he fell while being young.
Even in a brief biography of Yevgeny Yevtushenko, membership in the Union of Writers of the USSR is always mentioned. He managed not only to become a student of the Literary Institute, not having a certificate of maturity, but also to enter into a solid and prestigious organization by Soviet standards at the age of 19. He became the youngest member of the Writers' Union. This is an amazing fact in the biography of Yevgeny Yevtushenko. He briefly mentions this event in one of his works as follows: "I was accepted into the institute and the Union of Writers on the basis of a written book." At about the same time, Yevtushenko became secretary of the Komsomol organization.
In the early sixties, the brightest period begins in the biography of Yevgeny Alexandrovich Yevtushenko. He expressed briefly his position in literature and in society in the following way: "The poet in Russia is more than the poet." Back in the fifties, Yevtushenko published the collections The Third Snow, The Promise, The Highway of Enthusiasts, Poems of Different Years. At the beginning of his career, he published the book "Tenderness", "Wave of the Hand", "Apple".
The biography of Yevgeny Yevtushenko was exactly and favorable. In his work, however, there was an amazing variety. Intimate lyrics were not alien to him. In his youth, he composed patriotic works. In the seventies he wrote a cycle of poems devoted to the anti-war theme, for example, "Under the skin of the Statue of Liberty", "Corrida", and "Dove in Santiago".
During the “thaw” years, new names appeared in the literature. One of the symbols of this period, imbued with the spirit of freedom, became performances at the Polytechnic Museum. Bella Akhmadulina, Robert Rozhdestvensky, Bulat Okudzhava and, of course, Yevgeny Yevtushenko read their elements in the audience of this university. Biography and personal life of the poet are eventful. In 1957, he married for the first time. The famous poetess Bella Akhmadulina became his chosen one. Altogether he was married four times.
He fell in love with her in absentia by reading a poem in the magazine "October". When I saw a fragile figure and an unusual non-Slavic face, I realized that I was gone. They lived together for three years. There were always a lot of fans around Akhmadulina, which a jealous husband could barely endure. There were no children in this marriage.
The personal life of Yevgeny Yevtushenko, whose biography is the topic of our review, developed well after the break with Akhmadulina. Already in 1961, he married Galina Sokol-Lukonina, in the same year the firstborn of the poet Peter was born. Akhmadulina was not lucky. She could not get pregnant for a long time. For many years, Yevtushenko believed that he was guilty of this - in 1961, Bella became pregnant, and he insisted on an abortion.
From the second marriage, which lasted about ten years, the poet has a son. In 1978, Yevtushenko married an Irish woman, Jen Butler, an ardent admirer of his work. In this marriage sons were born - Anton and Alexander. In 1989, the poet married Maria Novikova, who bore him two more sons - Yevgeny and Dmitry.
In the mid-eighties, Yevtushenko took the post of Secretary of the Union of Writers. In 1989, he became a member of the human rights society Memorial. And in 1991 he left for the USA. For many years, Yevtushenko lectured at the University of Tulsa.
In a very old age, the poet suffered ailment, which ended with amputation of the leg. But after the operation, he continued to meet with fans and even starred in the documentary film "Dialogues with Yevgeny Yevtushenko."Even in the last years of his life, being a very sick man, he continued to work. In 2012, Yevtushenko published a collection of poems "Happiness and payment". In 2013 - "I can not say goodbye." In recent years, he also worked on the anthology "The Poet is More in Russia than the Poet".
In March 2017, the poet was hospitalized. Evtushenko was diagnosed with fourth stage cancer. Six years before that, he had an operation to remove a kidney, which led, in the opinion of doctors, to an oncological disease. The famous poet died on April 1, 2017 from cardiac arrest. Nine days later, in the city of Winter, in which Yevtushenko passed his early years, mourning was declared.
Soviet and Russian poet, the legend of the XX century was buried in Peredelkino, next to Boris Pasternak. The funeral was held in the temple, located in the writing village.
Interesting facts from the biography of Yevgeny Alexandrovich Yevtushenko can be found in the book "Wolf Passport", published for the first time in 1998. In this work, the author recalls the past years, the early period of creativity. The memoir prose, created by Evgeny Yevtushenko, includes the books "Six-paratrooper" and "I came to you, Babi Yar ...".The latter was published five years before the author’s death.
The works of Yevgeny Yevtushenko, published in the 60s, include the poems "Babiy Yar", "The Bratsk Hydroelectric Station", "Pushkin Pass". He is the author of three novels - "Berry places", "Bering tunnel", "Do not die before death."
Yevgeny Yevtushenko starred in five films. In 1965, he played a cameo in the film "Zastav Ilyich". In 1967, he played the poet in the film “I'm Curious - Film in Yellow”. Other pictures with Yevtushenko: "Kindergarten", "Rise", "Stalin's funeral". By the last poet wrote the script.
Many people remember the works of Yevgeny Yevtushenko on the films of Eldar Ryazanov. In the "Office Romance" sounded a song based on his poems - "Us in the stuffed trams talking ...". Music was written by Andrei Petrov. In the film "The Irony of Fate, or With Light Ferry," Sergei Nikitin sings the song "With me, this is what happens ..." (music by Mikael Tariverdiev). Yevtushenko's poems are also heard in the pictures “And It's All About Him,” “Night Witches In The Sky,” “Dima Gorin's Career.”
Brodsky about Yevtushenko
Not everyone admired the literary style of this poet. The main critic of his work was Joseph Brodsky.He stated: "Yevtushenko is a poor poet, and the person is even worse." And once Brodsky, a man who suffered from the Soviet power, uttered a phrase that became legendary: "Yevtushenko is against the collective farms? Then I am for it!"
The poet changed his civil position several times, which caused sharp criticism from his colleagues. Many did not like Yevtushenko’s manner of praising his literary gift. A very negative assessment was given to his prose by director Andrei Tarkovsky. After reading the story of Yevtushenko "Kazan University", he called the author mediocrity. About the poet as a person, Tarkovsky said: “He wants to please everyone: both Khrushchev, Brezhnev, and girls.”
Not the best way about the personal qualities of Yevgeny Yevtushenko said Marina Vlady. In her book "Vladimir, or Interrupted Flight," she argued that he was happy to communicate with Vysotsky, but treated him, like Voznesensky, with arrogance. In addition, he promised more than once to help publish the works of the disgraced poet, but he did not keep his promises.
Some facts from the biography of Yevgeny Yevtushenko may seem suspicious. In the mid-sixties, he published several poems that caused a great resonance in society. One of them is called "Tanks go around Prague."For such a work, the author could easily put him in jail or in a psychiatric hospital, which often happened to those whose work did not correspond to the official ideology.
However, Yevtushenko was not pursued. His books were not forbidden. He continued to print, traveled throughout the Soviet Union, and even in the 70s more than once been abroad. At the same time, he supported dissident writers Solzhenitsyn, Daniel and Brodsky, who spoke very unflatteringly about his work. According to the memoirs of Michael Weller, Yevtushenko helped his colleague more than once, despite his harsh criticism.
Interesting facts from the biography and personal life of Yevgeny Yevtushenko
- There is a version that the poet collaborated with the authorities. She allegedly explains the reasons for unimpeded trips abroad, which Yevtushenko made even in the era of stagnation. This point of view was expressed by intelligence officer Pavel Sudoplatov in his book of memoirs, but rather in the form of an assumption. However, such allegations need to be documented, and no evidence was provided.
- In Peredelkino, a literary village in which Boris Pasternak, Marina Tsvetaeva and other poets once lived, Yevtushenko opened a gallery in 2010. Here is his personal collection.The pictures are presented to the poet by artists Picasso, Chagall. Among the works of painting is the work of Ernst - the painter, who stood at the origins of surrealism.
- In the late sixties, Yevgeny Yevtushenko visited Portugal. It was a semi-legal trip. The arrival of the Soviet poet was organized by Snu Abacassish, a publisher who later had problems with the state security organs of Portugal. Impressed by this trip, the poet wrote the work "Love in Portuguese".
- Some facts from the poet’s biography can be found in Vasily Aksyonov’s novel The Mysterious Connection, filmed in 2017. In the title of this work - the words from the poem of Yevtushenko’s first wife, Bella Akhmadulina. In the first chapters of the book shows the events of the early sixties. However, in the preface the author warns that in his novel, as in every work of art, there is also a share of fiction.
- According to Yevtushenko, the best of his work - "Dove Santiago". The poet claimed that the poem saved more than three hundred people from suicide.
- In 1963, Yevtushenko was nominated for the Nobel Prize.